And when any man will offer a meat offering unto the Lord,
&c.] Or, "when a soul", and which Onkelos renders "a man", so called from his more noble part; and, as the Jews say, this word is used because the Minchah, or meat offering here spoken of, was a freewill offering, and was offered up with all the heart and soul; and one that offered in this manner, it was all one as if he offered his soul to the Lord F19: there were some meat offerings which were appointed and fixed at certain times, and were obliged to be offered, as at the daily sacrifice, the consecration of priests, the waving of the sheaf ( Exodus 29:40 Exodus 29:41 ) ( Leviticus 6:20 ) ( 23:13 ) but this was a freewill offering; wherefore it is said, "when any man will offer"; the Hebrew word (hxnm) , "a meat offering", may be derived from (hxn) , "to bring" or "offer", and so is a name common to offerings of any sort; or from (xynh) , to "recreate" and delight, it being of a sweet savour to the Lord, as other offerings were; others derive it from (xnm) , a root not in use, and in the Chaldee language signifies a gift or present, in which sense this word is used, ( Genesis 32:13 Genesis 32:20 )
his offering shall be of fine flour;
of flour of wheat, ( Exodus 29:2 ) for, as the Jews say, there is no fine flour but wheat, and this was for the meat offering, ( 1 Chronicles 21:23 ) and this was to be of the finest of the wheat; for all offerings, whether private or public, were to be of the best, and to be brought from those places which were noted for having the best; and the best places for fine flour were Mechmas and Mezonicha, and the next to them were Caphariim, in the valley; and though it might be taken out of any part of the land of Israel and used, yet it chiefly came from hence F20; and according to the Jewish writers F21; the least quantity of fine flour used in a meat offering was the tenth part of an ephah, which was about three pints and a half, and a fifth part of half a pint: Christ was prefigured by the meat offering; his sacrifice came in the room of it, and put an end to it, ( Psalms 40:7 Psalms 40:8 ) ( Daniel 9:27 ) whose flesh is meat indeed, the true meat or bread, in distinction from this typical meat offering, ( John 6:55 ) the fine flour denotes the choiceness, excellency, and purity of Christ; the dignity of his person, the superiority of him to angels and men, being the chiefest, and chosen out of ten thousand; the purity of his human nature being free from the bran of original corruption, and the spotlessness of his sacrifice: and fine flour of wheat being that of which bread is made, which is the principal part of human sustenance, and what strengthens the heart of man, and nourishes him, and is the means of maintaining and supporting life; it is a fit emblem of Christ, the bread of life, by which the saints are supported in their spiritual life, and strengthened to perform vital acts, and are nourished up unto everlasting life, and who, as the meat offering, is called the bread of God, ( Leviticus 21:6 Leviticus 21:8 ) ( John 6:33 )
and he shall pour oil upon it;
upon all of it, as Jarchi observes, because it was mingled with it, and it was the best oil that was used; and though it might be brought from any part of the land of Israel, which was a land of oil olive, yet the chief place for oil was Tekoah, and the next to it was Ragab beyond Jordan, and from hence it was usually brought F23; and the common quantity was a log, or half a pint, to a tenth deal of fine flour, as Gersom asserts from the wise men, and to which Maimonides F24 agrees; and Gersom on the place observes, that it is proper that some of the oil should be put in the lower part of the vessel, and after that the fine flour should put in it, and then he should pour some of it upon it and mix it: the oil denotes the grace of the Spirit poured out upon Christ without measure, the oil of gladness, with which he was anointed above his fellows, and from whence he has the name of Messiah or Christ, or Anointed; and with which he was anointed to be prophet, priest, and King, and which renders him very desirable and delightful to his people, his name being as ointment poured forth, ( Psalms 45:7 ) ( Song of Solomon 1:3 )
and put frankincense thereon;
on a part of it, as Jarchi's note is; and according to him, the man that brought the meat offering left an handful of frankincense upon it on one side; and the reason of this was, because it was not to be mixed with it as the oil was, and it was not to be taken in the handful with it F26; and the quantity of the frankincense, as Gersom says, was one handful: this denoted the sweet odour and acceptableness of Christ, the meat offering, both to God and to his people: it is an observation of the Jewish writers, that the pouring out of the oil on the fine flour, and mixing it with it, and putting on the frankincense, might be done by a stranger, by any man, by the man that brought the meat offering, but what follows after the bringing of it to the priest were done by him F1.
F19 Jarchi, Aben Ezra, & Baal Hatturim, in loc.
F20 Misn. Menachot, c. 8. sect. 1.
F21 Jarchi & Gersom in loc.
F23 Misn. Menachot, c. 8. sect. 3.
F24 Hilchot Maaseh, Hakorbanot, c. 13. sect 5.
F26 Vid T. Bab. Sotah, fol. 14. 2.
F1 T. Bab. Menachot, fol. 9. 1. & 18. 2. & Pesachim, fol. 36. 1. & Jarchi in loc.