Then the earth shook and trembled
As it did quickly after Christ called upon the Lord, and cried to his God upon the cross, ( Matthew 27:50 Matthew 27:51 ) ; and so some time after, when his people were praying together, the place where they were assembled was shaken, ( Acts 4:31 ) ; as a token of God's presence being with them: and the shaking and trembling of the earth is often used as a symbol of the presence of God, and of the greatness of his majesty; as when he brought the children of Israel through the Red sea, went before them in the wilderness, and descended on Mount Sinai, which mountain then moved and quaked exceedingly; see ( Psalms 104:32 ) ( 77:16-18 ) ( Psalms 68:7 Psalms 68:8 ) ( Exodus 19:18 ) ; and it is easy to observe, that in this, and other parts of this majestic account of the appearance of God on the behalf of the person the subject of this psalm, and against his enemies, there are manifest allusions to the giving of the law on Mount Sinai; though it may be this shaking of the earth, and what follows, are to be understood in a figurative sense;
the foundations also of the hills moved and were shaken;
and design the shaking of the earth and heavens, prophesied of in ( Haggai 2:6 Haggai 2:7 ) ; and which is explained in ( Hebrews 12:26 Hebrews 12:27 ) ; of the removing the ordinances of the ceremonial law, that Gospel ordinances might remain unshaken; for in ( 2 Samuel 22:8 ) ; the words are, "the foundations of heaven moved and shook"; and the shaking and moving of the earth and mountains may denote the abolition and destruction of kingdoms and nations; and first of the civil polity of the Jews, and of their ecclesiastical state, which quickly ensued upon the death of Christ; and next of the ruin of Rome Pagan, and then of Rome Papal; which are both signified by an earthquake, and by the removal of mountains, ( Revelation 6:12 Revelation 6:14 ) ( 11:13 ) ( 16:18-20 ) ;
because he was wroth;
with the people of the Jews, for disbelieving and rejecting the Messiah; for setting themselves, and taking counsel together against him, and putting him to death; for these things God was angry with them, and wrath came upon them to the uttermost, and their nation, city, and temple were destroyed, ( Psalms 2:1-5 ) ( 1 Thessalonians 2:16 ) ; and with the Pagan empire and antichristian powers, ( Revelation 6:16 Revelation 6:17 ) ( 11:18 ) .