So (outw). Both with trecw (run) and pukteuw (fight). As not uncertainly (w ouk adhlw). Instead of exhorting them further Paul describes his own conduct as a runner in the race. He explains outw. Adhlw old adverb, only here in N.T. His objective is clear, with Christ as the goal ( Philippians 3:14 ). He kept his eye on Christ as Christ watched him. Fight (pukteuw). Paul changes the metaphor from the runner to the boxer. Old verb (only here in N.T.) from pukth (pugilist) and that from pugmh (fist). See on "Mr 7:3"). As not beating the air (w ouk aera derwn). A boxer did this when practising without an adversary (cf. doing "the daily dozen") and this was called "shadow-fighting" (skiamacia). He smote something more solid than air. Probably ou negatives aera, though it still occurs with the participle as a strong and positive negative.