While Paul said in his defence (tou Paulou apologoumenou). Genitive absolute again, present middle participle of apologeomai, old verb to make defence as in 1 Corinthians 19:33 ; 1 Corinthians 24:10 ; 1 Corinthians 26:1 1 Corinthians 26:2 . The recitative oti of the Greek before a direct quotation is not reproduced in English. Have I sinned at all (ti hmarton). Constative aorist active indicative of amartanw, to miss, to sin. The ti is cognate accusative (or adverbial accusative). Either makes sense. Paul sums up the charges under the three items of law of the Jews, the temple, the Roman state (Caesar). This last was the one that would interest Festus and, if proved, would render Paul guilty of treason (majesta). Nero was Emperor A.D. 54-68, the last of the emperors with any hereditary claim to the name "Caesar." Soon it became merely a title like Kaiser and Czar (modern derivatives). In Acts only "Caesar" and "Augustus" are employed for the Emperor, not "King" (Basileu) as from the time of Domitian. Paul's denial is complete and no proof had been presented. Luke was apparently present at the trial.