All things (ta panta). The universe as in Romans 11:35 , a well-known philosophical phrase. It is repeated at the end of the verse. In him were created (en autwi ektisqh). Paul now gives the reason (oti, for) for the primacy of Christ in the work of creation ( Romans 16 ). It is the constative aorist passive indicative ektisqh (from ktizw, old verb, to found, to create ( Romans 1:25 ). This central activity of Christ in the work of creation is presented also in John 1:3 ; Hebrews 1:2 and is a complete denial of the Gnostic philosophy. The whole of creative activity is summed up in Christ including the angels in heaven and everything on earth. God wrought through "the Son of his love." All earthly dignities are included. Have been created (ektistai). Perfect passive indicative of ktizw, "stand created," "remain created." The permanence of the universe rests, then, on Christ far more than on gravity. It is a Christo-centric universe. Through him (di autou). As the intermediate and sustaining agent. He had already used en autwi (in him) as the sphere of activity. And unto him (kai ei auton). This is the only remaining step to take and Paul takes it ( 1 Corinthians 15:28 ) See Ephesians 1:10 for similar use of en autwi of Christ and in Colossians 1:19 ; Colossians 20 again we have en autwi, di autou, ei auton used of Christ. See Hebrews 2:10 for di on (because of whom) and di ou (by means of whom) applied to God concerning the universe (ta panta). In Romans 11:35 we find ex autou kai di autou kai ei auton ta panta referring to God. But Paul does not use ex in this connection of Christ, but only en, dia, and ei. See the same distinction preserved in 1 Corinthians 8:6 (ex of God, dia, of Christ).