Pharisees tempting him (Parisaioi peirazonte auton). They "could not ask a question of Jesus without sinister motives" (Bruce). See John 4:1 for the word (peirazw). For every cause (kata pasan aitian). This clause is an allusion to the dispute between the two theological schools over the meaning of Deuteronomy 24:1 . The school of Shammai took the strict and unpopular view of divorce for unchastity alone while the school of Hillel took the liberal and popular view of easy divorce for any passing whim if the husband saw a prettier woman (modern enough surely) or burnt his biscuits for breakfast. It was a pretty dilemma and meant to do Jesus harm with the people. There is no real trouble about the use of kata here in the sense of propter or because of (Robertson, Grammar, p. 509).