Paul (Paulo). He does not mention his apostleship as he usually does. Omitted also in I and II Thess. and Philemon. Timothy (Timoqeo). In no sense the author, but associated with Paul because with him here in Rome as in Corinth when I and II Thessalonians written and in Ephesus when I Corinthians sent and in Macedonia when II Corinthians written. Timothy was with Paul when the Philippian church was founded ( Acts 16:1Acts 16:13 ; Acts 17:14 ). He had been there twice since ( Acts 19:22 ; Acts 20:3 ). To all the saints (pasi toi agioi). The word saint (agio) here is used for the professing Christians as in 1 Corinthians 1:2 which see as well as Romans 1:7 for the origin of the word. The word "all" (pasi) means that all individual believers are included. Paul employs this word frequently in Philippians. In Christ Jesus (en Cristwi Ihsou). The centre for all Christian relations and activities for Paul and for us. In Philippi (en Pilippoi). See on "Ac 16:12" for discussion of this name. With the bishops (sun episkopoi). "Together with bishops," thus singled out from "all the saints." See Acts 20:17Acts 20:28 for the use of this most interesting word as equivalent to presbutero (elder). It is an old word from episkeptomai, to look upon or after, to inspect, so the overseer or superintendent. In the second century episcopo (Ignatius) came to mean one superior to elders, but not so in the N.T. The two New Testament church officers are here mentioned (bishops or elders and deacons). The plural is here employed because there was usually one church in a city with several pastors (bishops, elders). And deacons (kai diakonoi). Technical sense here of the other church officers as in 1 Timothy 3:8-13 , not the general use as in Matthew 22:13 . The origin of the office is probably seen in Acts 6:1-6 . The term is often applied to preachers ( 1 Corinthians 3:5 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ). The etymology (dia, koni) suggests raising a dust by hastening.