The kings of the earth (oi basilei th gh). Repeated in Isaiah 1:5 ; Isaiah 6:15 ; Isaiah 17:18 ; Isaiah 18:3 Isaiah 18:9 ; Isaiah 19:19 ; Isaiah 21:24 and "the kings of the inhabited earth" ( Isaiah 16:14 ) either for human rulers in general or the vassal kings absorbed by the Roman Empire. Committed fornication (eporneusan). First aorist active indicative of porneuw. "In purchasing the favour of Rome by accepting her suzerainty and with it her vices and idolatries" (Swete). Were made drunken (emequsqhsan). First aorist passive indicative of mequskw, old verb (from mequ), as in Luke 12:45 , here only in the Apocalypse. Cf. Isaiah 51:7 and pepotiken in Revelation 14:8 . See Revelation 18:3 .