In Smyrna (en Smurnh). North of Ephesus, on a gulf of the Aegean, one of the great cities of Asia (province), a seat of emperor-worship with temple to Tiberius, with many Jews hostile to Christianity who later join in the martyrdom of Polycarp, poor church (rich in grace) which receives only praise from Christ, scene of the recent massacre of Greeks by the Turks. Ramsay (op. cit., p. 251) terms Smyrna "the City of Life." Christianity has held on here better than in any city of Asia. The first and the last (o prwto kai o escato). Repeating the language of 2 Corinthians 1:17 . Which was dead (o egeneto nekro). Rather, "who became dead" (second aorist middle indicative of ginomai) as in 2 Corinthians 1:18 . And lived again (kai ezhsen). First aorist (ingressive, came to life) active of zaw (o zwn in 2 Corinthians 1:18 ). Emphasis on the resurrection of Christ.