Contrary to nature
). This is the gist of the argument, the power of God to do what is contrary to natural processes. He put the wild olive (Gentile) into the good olive tree (the spiritual Israel) and made the wild olive (contrary to nature) become the good olive (kallielaio
, the garden olive, kallo
in Aristotle and a papyrus). Into their own olive tree
(th idiai elaiai
). Dative case. Another argument a fortiori
, "how much more" (pollwi mallon
). God can graft the natural Israel back upon the spiritual Israel, if they become willing.