And so (kai outw). By the complement of the Gentiles stirring up the complement of the Jews (verses Romans 11 ). All Israel (pa Israhl). What does Paul mean? The immediate context (use of pa in contrast with apo merou, plhrwma here in contrast with plhrwma in verse Romans 12 ) argues for the Jewish people "as a whole." But the spiritual Israel (both Jews and Gentiles) may be his idea in accord with Romans 9:6 ( Galatians 6:16 ) as the climax of the argument. At any rate we should strive for and pray for the conversion of Jews as a whole. Paul here quotes from Isaiah 59:20 ; Isaiah 27:9 . The Deliverer (o ruomeno). Present middle articular participle of ruomai, to rescue, to deliver. See on 1 Thessalonians 1:10 ; 2 Corinthians 1:10 . The Hebrew Goel, the Avenger, the Messiah, the Redeemer ( Deuteronomy 25:5-10 ; Job 19:25 ; Ruth 3:12 ). Paul interprets it of Jesus as Messiah.