Done (not in the Greek, only the article twn), "not as a result of works those in righteousness which we did." Same idea as in Romans 3:20 . According to his mercy he saved us (kata to autou eleo eswsen). See Psalms 109:26 ; 1 Peter 1:3 ; Ephesians 2:4 . Effective aorist active indicative of swzw. Through the washing of regeneration (dia loutrou palingenesia). Late and common word with the Stoics (Dibelius) and in the Mystery-religions (Angus), also in the papyri and Philo. Only twice in the N.T. ( Matthew 19:28 with which compare apokatastasia in Acts 3:21 , and here in personal sense of new birth). For loutron, see Ephesians 5:26 , here as there the laver or the bath. Probably in both cases there is a reference to baptism, but, as in Romans 6:3-6 , the immersion is the picture or the symbol of the new birth, not the means of securing it. And renewing of the Holy Spirit (kai anakainwsew pneumato agiou). "And renewal by the Holy Spirit" (subjective genitive). For the late word anakainwsi, see Romans 12:2 . Here, as often, Paul has put the objective symbol before the reality. The Holy Spirit does the renewing, man submits to the baptism after the new birth to picture it forth to men.