Leviticus 23

Chapter 23

23:2  Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts.

feasts

The feasts of Jehovah. As given to Israel, these were simply seven great religious festivals which were to be observed every year. The first three verses of Lev. 23. do not relate to the feasts but separate the sabbath from the feasts.

23:5  In the fourteenth day of the first month at even is the LORD'S passover.

Passover

The Passover, Leviticus 23:4 Leviticus 23:5 . This feast is memorial and brings into view redemption, upon which all blessing rests. Typically, it stands for "Christ our passover, sacrificed for us." 1 Corinthians 5:7 .

first month i.e. April.

23:6  And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the LORD: seven days ye must eat unleavened bread.

bread

The feast of Unleavened Bread, Leviticus 23:6-8 . This feast speaks of communion with Christ, the unleavened wave-loaf, in the full blessing of His redemption, and of a holy walk. The divine order here is beautiful; first redemption, then a holy walk. ; 1 Corinthians 5:6-8 ; 2 Corinthians 7:1 ; Galatians 5:7-9 .

23:10  Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye be come into the land which I give unto you, and shall reap the harvest thereof, then ye shall bring a sheaf of the firstfruits of your harvest unto the priest:

first fruits

The feast of Firstfruits, Leviticus 23:10-14 . This feast is typical of resurrection--first of Christ, then of "them that are Christ's at His coming" ; 1 Corinthians 15:23 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 .

23:16  Even unto the morrow after the seventh sabbath shall ye number fifty days; and ye shall offer a new meat offering unto the LORD.

fifty days

The feast of Pentecost, Leviticus 23:15-22 . The anti-type is the descent of the Holy Spirit to form the church. For this reason leaven is present, because there is evil in the church ; Matthew 13:33 ; Acts 5:1 Acts 5:10 ; Acts 15:1 . Observe, it is now loaves; not a sheaf of separate growths loosely bound together, but a real union of particles making one homogenous body. The descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost united the separated disciples into one organism. ; 1 Corinthians 10:16 1 Corinthians 10:17 ; 1 Corinthians 12:12 1 Corinthians 12:13 1 Corinthians 12:20 .

23:17  Ye shall bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenth deals: they shall be of fine flour; they shall be baken with leaven; they are the firstfruits unto the LORD.

wave-loaves

The wave-loaves were offered fifty days after the wave-sheaf. This is precisely the period between the resurrection of Christ and the formation of the church at Pentecost by the baptism of the Holy Spirit Acts 2:1-4 ; 1 Corinthians 12:12 1 Corinthians 12:13 . See "Church" ; Matthew 16:18 ; Hebrews 12:22 Hebrews 12:23 . With the wave-sheaf no leaven was offered, for there was no evil in Christ; but the wave-loaves, typifying the church, are "baken with leaven," for in the church there is still evil.

23:24  Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, In the seventh month, in the first day of the month, shall ye have a sabbath, a memorial of blowing of trumpets, an holy convocation.

trumpets

The feast of Trumpets, Leviticus 23:23-25 . This feast is a prophetical type and refers to the future regathering of long-dispersed Israel. A long interval elapses between Pentecost and Trumpets, answering to the long period occupied in the pentecostal work of the Holy Spirit in the present dispensation. Study carefully ; Isaiah 18:3 ; 27:13 (with contexts); Isaiah 58:1-14 (entire chapter), and ; Joel 2:1-3:21 ; in connection with the "trumpets," and it will be seen that these trumpets, always symbols of testimony, are connected with the regathering and repentance of Israel after the church, or pentecostal period is ended. This feast is immediately followed by the day of atonement.

seventh month

i.e. October; also Leviticus 23:27 Leviticus 23:34 Leviticus 23:39 Leviticus 23:41 .

23:27  Also on the tenth day of this seventh month there shall be a day of atonement: it shall be an holy convocation unto you; and ye shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire unto the LORD.

atonement

The day of Atonement, Leviticus 23:26-32 . The day is the same described in Lev. 16., but here the stress is laid upon the sorrow and repentance of Israel. In other words, the prophetical feature is made prominent, and that looks forward to the repentance of Israel after her regathering under the Palestinian Covenant, Deuteronomy 30:1-10 preparatory to the second advent of Messiah and the establishment of the kingdom. See the connection between the "trumpet" in Joel 2:1 and the mourning which follows in verses Joel 2:11-15 .

Also Zechariah 12:10-13 in connection with the atonement of Zechariah 13:1 . Historically the "fountain" of Zechariah 13:1 was opened at the crucifixion, but rejected by the Jews of that and the succeeding centuries. After the regathering of Israel the fountain will be efficaciously "opened" to Israel.

atonement

(See Scofield "Exodus 29:33") .

23:42  Ye shall dwell in booths seven days; all that are Israelites born shall dwell in booths:

booths

The feast of Tabernacles, Leviticus 23:34-44 is (like the Lord's Supper for the church) both memorial and prophetic --memorial as to redemption out of Egypt Leviticus 23:43 prophetic as to the kingdom-rest of Israel after her regathering and restoration, when the feast again becomes memorial, not for Israel alone, but for all nations. Zechariah 14:16-21 .

Read Leviticus 23