John 3

3:1  Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus1, a ruler of the Jews2:
    JESUS ATTENDS THE FIRST PASSOVER OF HIS MINISTRY. (Jerusalem, April 9, A.D. 27.) B. JESUS TALKS WITH NICODEMUS. John 3:1-21

  1. Now there was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus. Nicodemus is mentioned only by John. His character is marked by prudence amountingalmost to timidity. At John 7:50-52 he defends Jesus, but withoutcommitting himself as in any interested in him; at John 19:38 John 19:39 hebrought spices for the body of Jesus, but only after Joseph ofArimathea had secured the body.

  2. A ruler of the Jews. A member of the Sanhedrin.

3:2  the same came unto him by night1, and said to him, Rabbi, we know2 that thou art a teacher come from God3; for no one can do these signs that thou doest, except God be with him5.

  1. The same came unto him by night. Thus avoiding the hostility of his colleagues, and also obtaining a more personal and uninterruptedinterview with Jesus. That his coming by night revealed his characteris shown by the fact that John repeats the expression when describinghim at John 19:39 . But, in justice, it should be said that Nicodemuswas the only one of his order who came at all during our Lord's life.

  2. And said to him, Rabbi, we know. Nicodemus uses the plural, to avoid committing himself too much. Nicodemus would assert nothing but thatwhich was commonly admitted by many. We learn from John 12:42 John 12:43 thatlate in the ministry of Christ, when hostility towards him was mostbitter, many of the rulers still believed in him. No doubt, whenNicodemus said "we" he used the word advisedly and conscientiously.

  3. That thou art a teacher come from God. The rulers knew that Jesus was not the product of any of the rabbinical schools, and his miraclesmarked him as a prophet and distinguished him from all who were guidedmerely by reason, no matter how learned.

  4. For no man can do these signs that thou doest. See John 2:25 .

  5. Except God be with him. These words show the effect of Christ's miracles. Miracles arrest attention and challenge investigation, andprove that he who works them is from God ( Acts 10:38 ).

3:3  Jesus answered1 and said unto him, Verily, verily2, I say unto thee, Except one be born anew3, he cannot see the kingdom of God4.

  1. Jesus answered. Not the words, but the thoughts of Nicodemus. The answers of Jesus often look rather to the thoughts of the questionerthan to the form of the question. Nicodemus came seeking to knowsomething about the kingdom of God, and Jesus opened at once upon thesubject.

  2. Verily, verily. See John 1:51.

  3. Except one be born anew. The Greek word "anothen," translated "anew," may also mean "from above", and some commentators seek to sotranslate it here, but it is rightly translated "again", for Nicodemusunderstood it to mean a "second" birth. As to the import of thepassage, Luther's words are pertinent:

    "My doctrine is not of doing, and of leaving undone, but of being and becoming; so that it is not a new work to be done, but the being new created--not the living otherwise, but the being new-born."

  4. He cannot see the kingdom of God. To "see" the kingdom means to possess or enjoy it ( Psalms 16:10 ; Psalms 90:15 ; John 8:51 ; Luke 2:26 ).

3:4  Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old1? can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born2?

  1. How can a man be born when he is old? Knowing that a man cannot be literally born a second time, Nicodemus states to Jesus the literalimport of his words, hoping thereby to draw from him an explanation ofthis new, strange metaphor which he was using.

  2. Can he enter a second time into his mother's womb, and be born? So far as he did grasp the meaning of Jesus, Nicodemus saw himself barredforever from the kingdom by an impossible requirement. Many, like him,need to learn that God asks of us nothing that is impossible; that, onthe contrary, the yoke is easy and the burden is light ( Matthew 11:30 ).

3:5  Jesus answered, Verily, verily1, I say unto thee, Except one be born of water2 and the Spirit3, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God!

  1. Verily, verily. See John 1:51.

  2. Except one be born of water. By far the vast majority of scholars consider the word "water" in this verse as a reference to Christianbaptism. The Cambridge Bible says

    "the outward sign and inward grace of Christian baptism are here clearly given, and an unbiased mind can scarcely avoid seeing this plain fact. This becomes clearer when we compare John 1:26 John 1:33 , where the Baptist declares, "I baptize in water," the Messiah "baptizeth in the Holy Spirit." The fathers, both Greek and Latin, thus interpret the passage with singular unanimity."

    Men would have no difficulty in understanding this passage were it notthat its terms apparently exclude "the pious unimmersed" from Christ'skingdom. But difficulties, however distressing, will justify no man inwrestling the Scriptures of God ( 2 Peter 3:16 ; Romans 3:4 ).

  3. And the Spirit. Water and Spirit are joined at Matthew 28:19 Acts 2:38 ; Acts 19:1-7 ; Titus 3:5 .

3:6  That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit1.

  1. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Jesus here draws the distinction between fleshlybirth and spiritual birth. He did this to prepare Nicodemus tounderstand that it is the "spirit" and not the flesh which undergoesthe change called the new birth. Regeneration is no slight, superficialchange, but a radical one, and one which we cannot work for ourselves.

3:7  Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born anew1.

  1. Ye must be born anew. Jesus here plainly declares that none are exempt from this gospel requirement. Man must obtain more than hisfleshly nature if he would inherit eternal life.

3:8  The wind bloweth where it will, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.

  1. The wind bloweth where it will . . . so is every one that is born of the Spirit. In this sentence we have the Greek word "pneuma" translatedby the two words "wind" and "spirit". There can be no justification inrendering "pneuma" as "wind", when in the last clause of the samesentence, and three times in the immediate context, it is rendered"spirit". There can be no doubt that it means the same in both clausesof this verse, and if we render it wind in the first clause, we mustsay "born of the wind" in the last clause. Whatever is the meaning ofthis verse, it must be extracted from the rendering which the Revisershave strangely placed in the margin, viz.: "The Spirit breatheth whereit will", etc. It teaches that a man is born of the Spirit, breathingas he wills through inspired men. It is equivalent to Paul's maxim thatfaith comes by hearing the word of God* ( Romans 10:17 ).

    * From this (Bro. McGarvey's) construction of John 3:8 I dissent,and hold that the Revisers have given us the true reading in the text.The question has been fully discussed in Lard's Quarterly, Vol. III, p.337; Benjamin Franklin's Sermons, Vol. I, p. 281; Alexander Campbell'sMillennial Harbinger, 1832, p. 604; 1833, p. 24; 1869, pp. 317, 478,522, 688. I take this passage to mean that the process by which a manis regenerated by the Spirit of God is no more mysterious than otheroperations in the natural world, of which operations the blowing of thewind is taken as an example.--Philip Y. Pendleton.

3:10  Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou the teacher of Israel, and understandest not these things1?

  1. Art thou the teacher of Israel, and understandest not these things? The Jewish teachers or doctors of the law made very arrogant claims toknowledge, but it often happens that the professedly learned areremarkably unacquainted with the first principles of their religion. Itwas so with the Jewish teachers ( Matthew 15:14 ). Nicodemus should haveunderstood that such a change as Jesus was speaking of would benecessary, for (1) It was foreshadowed in the Old Testament ( Deuteronomy 10:16 1 Samuel 10:9 ; 1 Samuel 16:13 ; Psalms 51:10 ; Ezekiel 18:31 ; Jeremiah 4:4 ). (2) John the Baptistsuggested the need of some such change when he attacked the Jewishtrust in their descent from Abraham ( Matthew 3:9 ; Luke 3:8 ).

3:11  Verily, verily1, I say unto thee, We2 speak that which we know, and bear witness of that which we have seen3; and ye receive not our witness4.

  1. Verily, verily. See John 1:51.

  2. I say unto thee, We. A rhetorical plural. See Mark 4:30 .

  3. Speak that which we know, and bear witness of that which we have seen. His words were not founded upon reasonings, speculations, andguesses, but were the plain testimony of an eyewitness, who was able tosee and had seen things which to us are invisible.

  4. And ye receive not our witness. Ye teachers of Israel, who, above all men, should receive our guidance, are the very last to follow us.As the Jewish rulers would not receive Christ's testimony, let us notbe surprised if many of our day refuse to listen to the gospel which wepreach.

3:12  If I told you earthly things and ye believe not2, how shall ye believe3 if I tell you heavenly things4?

  1. If I have told you. Jesus here divides religious phenomena into two divisions--earthly and heavenly.

  2. Earthly things and ye believe not. The earthly phenomena are those which have their sphere in this world. In this sense regeneration is anearthly thing; for though it has a heavenly origin, its manifestationsare among the daily sights and experiences of our earthly life.

  3. How shall ye believe. These things have their sphere far removed from earth, and transcended the comprehension of Nicodemus. Now, ifNicodemus would not believe Jesus when he told him of things which hehimself partially knew, how would he believe when Jesus spoke of thatwhich was utterly unknown to him?

  4. If I tell you heavenly things? Religion has also its heavenly phenomena, such as the ordering of God's celestial household; theexperiences of those who pass into the divine presence; thepropitiation, or the changes wrought in the attitude of God toward manby the sacrifice of Christ; the powers and limitations of Christ'spriestly intercession, etc.

3:13  And no one hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended out of heaven1, [even] the Son of man, who is in heaven2.

  1. And no one hath ascended into heaven, but he that descended out of heaven. Nicodemus is here informed that Christ alone can teachconcerning heavenly things. Jesus can so teach, for he did not begin onearth and ascend to heaven, but he came from heaven to earth, andreturned thence (afterwards) to heaven.

  2. [Even] the Son of man, who is in heaven. Jesus speaks of himself as being present in heaven, because his divine nature was in constantcommunication with the powers of heaven. If we conceive of heaven as alocality (a proper conception), Jesus was upon the earth; but if weconceive of it as a present communion with the presence of God (also aproper conception), then Christ was in heaven as he talked withNicodemus ( John 8:29 ).

3:14  And as Moses1 lifted up the serpent in the wilderness2, even so must the Son of man be lifted up;

  1. And as Moses. Jesus here indicates the prophetical character of the Old Testament. The extent of Christ's endorsement of the Old Testamentbecomes apparent when we consider on how many occasions he revealedhimself under the same symbolism which the Old Testament used to revealhim. At John 2:19 he revealed his resurrection under the symbolismof the destroyed and restored temple. At Matthew 12:40 the same event isrevealed under the symbolism of Jonah and the whale. And here hiscrucifixion is likewise partially veiled and partially disclosed undera symbolic reference to the brazen serpent.

  2. Lifted up the serpent in the wilderness. The account of the brazen serpent will be found at Numbers 21:4-9 . The lesson of the brazen serpentwill be found in its main points of the crucifixion of Christ. When thepeople were bitten by fiery serpents, something made to resemble aserpent was hung upon a pole, and the people who looked to it in faiththrough it healing and life. Such is the epitome of Christ's gospel.

3:15  that whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life1.

  1. That whosoever believeth may in him have eternal life. When the world was perishing because of sin, Jesus, made to resemble sin( Romans 8:3 ; 2 Corinthians 5:21 ) was hung upon the cross, that those who look untohim in faith ( Isaiah 45:22 ) may find life through him ( 1 John 5:11-13 ).

3:16  For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish1, but have eternal life2.

  1. For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth on him should not perish. Luther calls this verse"the Bible in miniature". It is a lesson as to God's love: (1) Itsmagnitude--he gave his only begotten Son. (2) Its reach--he gave it toa sinful world ( Romans 5:8 ). (3) Its impartiality--he gives it to whoever;that is, to all alike ( Matthew 5:45 ; Revelation 22:17 ). (4) Its beneficial richness--it blesses with life eternal. (5) Its limitations--it is nowhere saidthat God so loves that he will save unbelievers. Love is the mutual andbinding grace between God and man; it may also be said that in Christis made God human and man divine.

  2. But have eternal life. John uses the word "eternal" ("ainios" in Greek) seventeen times in his Gospel ( John 3:15 John 3:16 John 3:36 ; John 4:14 John 4:36 ; John 5:24 John 5:39 John 6:27 John 6:40 John 6:47 John 6:54 John 6:68 ; John 10:28 ; John 12:25 John 12:50 ; John 17:2 John 17:3 ) and six times in his FirstEpistle ( 1 John 1:2 ; 1 John 2:25 ; 1 John 3:15 ; 1 John 5:11 1 John 5:13 1 John 5:20 ). He always applies it to life.The synoptists use it eight times ( Matthew 18:8 ; Matthew 19:16 Matthew 19:29 ; Matthew 25:41 Matthew 25:46 ; Mark 3:29 Mark 10:17 Mark 10:30 ; Luke 10:25 ; Luke 16:9 ; Luke 18:18 Luke 18:30 ), applying it to life, and also tofire, punishment, damnation, and habitation.

3:17  For God sent not the Son into the world to judge the world; but that the world should be saved through him1.

  1. For God sent not the Son into the world to judge the world; but that the world should be saved through him. Christ's first mission to theworld was for salvation rather than for judgment. His second missionwas for judgment, but a judgment-hour wherein he will be able to savethose who have accepted the means of grace which he established by hisfirst coming. But the first coming of Christ incidentally involvedjudgment ( John 9:39 ), and John the Baptist emphasized the judgment ofChrist. This judgment, however, was not the principal object ofChrist's coming, but was an inevitable result of it. Jesus here speaksof it as a self-executed judgment. It was a necessary result of therevealed presence of Christ ( Luke 2:35 ). That Christ is at present aSavior, and not a judge, is a truth which needs to be emphasized.Catholics are taught to fear Christ and flee to the Virgin; and manyignorant Protestants are disposed to look upon him as a prosecutorrather than as an advocate.

3:18  He that believeth on him is not judged1: he that believeth not hath been judged already, because he hath not believed on the name of the only begotten Son of God2.

  1. He that believeth on him is not judged. The name Jesus means "Savior"; to disbelieve this name is to reject Christ as Savior. Theverses at John 3:14 John 3:15 require belief in Jesus as the Son of man.This verse requires belief in him as the Son of God. Belief in thisdual nature of Jesus is essential to salvation.

  2. He that believeth not hath been judged already, because he hath not believed on the name of the only begotten Son of God. Unbelief is theworld's crowning sin; and belief is, humanly speaking, the source ofits justification. This verse teaches that God's judgments are in astate of perpetually present enactment. The believer is saved now( Acts 13:39 ), and the unbeliever rests already under that condemnationwhich he fears the Son of God may some day pronounce against him.

3:19  And this is the judgment1, that the light is come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light; for their works were evil.

    John 3:19-21

  1. And this is the judgment, etc. These verses show that when God judges a man by his faith, the judgment is not arbitrary andirrational. Men "believe" according to the secret aspirations anddesires of their nature. Christ, as the example and model of life,shines out as the light of the world; those who approve and love such alife are drawn to him and constrained to believe in him. Spiritually,they abide in his presence, that they may compare their lives with his,and that they may be assured that their works are wrought under therenewing and sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit, who is sent ofChrist. But one whose desires are evil shrinks from Christ, andstruggles to disbelieve in him; he seeks to know as little of Christ aspossible, because such knowledge exposes the wickedness and depravityof his own sinful nature.

3:22  After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judea; and there he tarried with them2, and baptized3.

    FIRST MINISTRY IN JUDEA--JOHN'S SECOND TESTIMONY. (Judea and Aenon.) John 3:22-36

  1. After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judaea. That is, he left Jerusalem, the capital of Judea, and wentinto the rural districts thereof. We find him there again in John 12and Luke 13-18. He gained disciples there, but of them we know but few,such as Mary, Martha, Lazarus, Simeon, and Judas Iscariot.

  2. And there he tarried with them. It is not stated how long he tarried, but it may have been from April to December, for the passoverwas in April, and December was "yet four months" before the harvest( John 4:35 ).

  3. And baptized. This baptism was not into the three names of God ( John 7:39 ), into which the apostles were afterwards directed tobaptize ( Matthew 28:19 ). It was a continuation of John's baptism,preparatory to the organization of the church--a preparation for thekingdom. Some think that Jesus, at this time, baptized in his own name,and afterwards gave the full baptismal formula into the other twonames--Father and Spirit. But there is no evidence of this, andChristian baptism is a baptism into the death of Christ ( Romans 6:3 ).Christ would hardly have ordered baptism into his death before hiscrucifixion. Such a proceeding would have wrought confusion.

3:23  And John also was baptizing1 in Enon near to Salim, because there was much water there3: and they came, and were baptized4.

  1. And John also was baptizing. The fact that John also was baptizing is a further indication that the baptism administered by Jesus waspreparatory. There would hardly be two kinds of baptism administered bydivine consent at one time.

  2. In Aenon. This name means "springs".

  3. Near to Salim, because there was much water there. If one starts at Sychar, at the foot of Mount Ebal, and follows the Damascus roadnorthward for seven miles, he comes upon the valley called Wady Farah.In this beautiful wady the stream flows eastward, having Salim threemiles to its south and 'Ainun four miles to its north. For the mostpart the valley is narrow, and hemmed in by rocky cliffs. But if onefollows the course seven miles eastward from the Damascus road, hecomes upon a beautiful valley, about one mile wide and three milesbroad--a place every way suitable for the gathering of multitudes tohear the preaching of John. A perennial stream, with copious springsall along its course, furnishes, even in the longest, driest summers,the "much water" required for baptism.

  4. They came, and were baptized. Says Lt. Conder,

    "Here, then, in the wild, desert valley, beneath the red precipices, where the hawk and kite find nests in "the stairs of the rocks," or by the banks of the shingly stream, with its beautiful oleander blossoms shining in the dusky foliage of luxuriant shrubs, we may picture the dark figure of the Baptist, in his robe of camel's hair, with the broad leather Bedawi belt around his loins, preaching to the Judean multitude of pale citizens--portly, gray-bearded rabbis, Roman soldiers in leathern armor and shining helmets, sharp-faced publicans, and, above all, to the great mass of oppressed peasantry, the "beasts of the people," uncared for, stricken with palsy, with blindness, with fever, with leprosy, but eagerly looking forward to the appearance of that Messiah who came to preach the gospel to the poor."

3:24  For John was not yet cast into prison1.

  1. For John was not yet cast into prison. John's Gospel shows that the ministry of Christ was well under way before that of the Baptistceased: a fact which the synoptists do not reveal. See Matthew 4:12 Mark 6:17 ; Luke 3:20 .

3:25  There arose therefore a questioning on the part of John's disciples with a Jew about purifying1.

  1. There arose therefore a questioning on the part of John's disciples with a Jew about purifying. What this questioning was we are not told.The word "therefore" doubtless refers to the baptisms just mentioned,so that the dispute probably related to the necessity or purifyingeffects of that ordinance. But whatever the dispute was about, itbrought to notice the fact that Jesus was baptizing more than John, afact which some of the disciples of John quickly resented.

3:26  And they came unto John, and said to him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond the Jordan1, to whom thou hast borne witness, behold, the same baptizeth2, and all men come to him3.

  1. And they came unto John, and said to him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond the Jordan. This verse shows that John's disciples lookedupon Jesus as one who owed all his position and popularity to theBaptist's testimony, and were, therefore, surprised to find that Jesuswas surpassing John. They looked upon this conduct as a species ofingratitude on the part of Jesus.

  2. To whom thou hast borne witness, behold, the same baptizeth. This verse also shows us that the witness of John did not pass unheeded. Hiswitness was public and notorious, and men remembered it, though theydid not always profit by it.

  3. And all men come to him. That these friends of John felt unkindly toward Jesus is shown by their exaggerated statement that "all men cometo him".

3:27  John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it have been given him from heaven1.

  1. A man can receive nothing, except it have been given him from heaven. Some take this to mean that Jesus could not have had thisgreat success unless Heaven gave it to him; but it is more likely thatJohn used the words with entire reference to himself. A "man" can onlytake what is given to him; the Son of God takes what he chooses. Thefriend receives only what hospitality extends to him, but the heirtakes what he will, as the owner of the house.

3:28  Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ1, but, that I am sent before him.

  1. Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ,
  2. but, that I am sent before him. In stating that John had borne witness ( John 3:26 ). John's disciple had already committed themselves to thefact that John disclaimed to be the Messiah, and that Jesus was theMessiah; for it was concerning these two things that John had given histestimony.

3:29  He that hath the bride is the bridegroom1: but the friend of the bridegroom, that standeth and heareth him2, rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice3: this my joy therefore is made full4.

  1. He that hath the bride is the bridegroom. John looks upon the body of disciples as the Lord's bride, and prophetically anticipates thevery title which was subsequently applied to the church.

  2. But the friend of the bridegroom, that standeth and heareth him. It was the duty of "the friend of the bridegroom" to arrange thepreliminaries of the wedding, and to promote the mutual interests ofthe bride and bridegroom. His duties and responsibilities greatlyexceeded those of our "best man", for it was his place to demand thehand of the bride, and to prepare everything for the reception of thebride and bridegroom.

  3. Rejoiceth greatly because of the bridegroom's voice. Joy at the sound of the bridegroom's voice is part of the drapery of John'sfigure. Voices of bride and bridegroom are a Biblical symbol offestivity and joy ( Jeremiah 7:34 ; Jeremiah 25:10 ; Jeremiah 33:11 ). The Song of Solomon isthe only book in the Bible which dwells upon the relationship of brideand bridegroom, and in it the voice of the bridegroom is mentioned withjoy ( Song of Solomon 2:8 ).

  4. This my joy therefore is made full. If John meant anything more by the phrase than mere drapery, he used it to express his pleasure thatthe Messiah was directing his own affairs, and speaking his wishes withhis own voice, instead of using his friend as a mouthpiece.

3:30  He must increase, but I must decrease1.

  1. He must increase, but I must decrease. Noble words! "He must increase"--because the divine law has ordered it, and prophecy hasforetold it ( Isaiah 52:13 ), and because the very divinity of his natureabsolutely requires it. "I must decrease"--in popularity, in power, infollowing. The Christian minister finds the increase of his work thesame as the increase of Christ's kingdom; but with the Baptist the casewas different. He was a Jewish prophet, and as the power of the NewDispensation, under Christ, gained headway, the Old Dispensation, ofwhich he was a part, waxed old, and was ready to vanish away.

3:31  He that cometh from above is above all1: he that is of the earth is of the earth, and of the earth he speaketh: he that cometh from heaven is above all.

  1. He that cometh from above is above all, etc. Some think that the testimony of the Baptist closes with John 3:30 , and that the rest ofthe chapter is the comment of the apostle John, but there is certainlyno sufficient ground for such a view.

3:32  What he hath seen and heard, of that he beareth witness1; and no man receiveth his witness2.

  1. What he hath seen and heard, of that he beareth witness. In John 3:21 John 3:32 the Baptist draws a contrast between his testimony andthat of the Messiah. The Baptist's testimony was largely of a negativecharacter. He testified that he was not the Christ ( John 3:28 ), andwhile he pointed Jesus out as the Christ, the worthy one, the spiritualbaptizer, he nowhere undertook to elaborate as to the character ornature of Jesus. He looked upon Jesus as being so far above all earthlyprophets that no prophet could reveal him. The task of such revelationdevolved upon Jesus himself. God must be self-revealed.

  2. And no man receiveth his witness. It was no heavy disappointment to John that his disciples had failed to grasp his testimony concerninghimself, and yet so few were persuaded by the testimony of Jesus thatJohn hyperbolically says "no man receiveth his testimony".

3:33  He that hath received his witness hath set his seal to [this], that God is true1.

  1. He that hath received his witness hath set his seal to [this], that God is true. We have here a metaphor, taken from the sealing of adocument, as an expression of trust in or adherence to it. Compare John 6:27 ; 1 Corinthians 9:2 . To receive Christ's witness was to publicly confessa conviction that God was true--true to his promise that he would senda Messiah, a Savior ( Romans 3:4 ). To believe Christ is to believe God;to make Christ a liar is to make the Father one also, for he speaksconcerning Christ ( 1 John 5:10 ) and through Christ ( John 7:16 ; John 16:24 ).

3:34  For he whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for he giveth not the Spirit by measure1.

  1. For he giveth not the Spirit by measure. To give anything by measure indicates a partial, scanty bestowal ( Ezekiel 4:16 ). The Spirit of God,even in inspired prophets, was but a partial and intermittent gift( 1 Corinthians 7:25 ; 1 Corinthians 13:9 ; 1 Peter 1:11 ; Hebrews 1:1 ), but in Jesus, the Son of God,the Spirit of God dwelt fully and uninterruptedly ( Colossians 1:19 ). Thepresent tense "giveth" points to a continuous communication of theSpirit. If Christ had received the Spirit "by measure", then his giftof the Spirit might be exhausted.

3:35  The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand1.

  1. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand. This fact was afterwards asserted by Jesus ( Matthew 28:18 ). Jesus is indeedKing of kings ( Psalms 2:6-8 ; Matthew 11:27 ; Acts 2:33 ; Acts 10:36 ; Ephesians 1:22 ).

3:36  He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life1; but he that obeyeth not the Son shall not see life2, but the wrath of God abideth on him3.

  1. He that believeth on the Son hath eternal life. The New Testament represents everlasting life as a present possession obtained by belief.

  2. But he that obeyeth not the Son shall not see life. In the second clause of this verse "obeyeth" stands in contrast with "believeth" inthe first clause. No mental assent, however strong, is reckoned by theScriptures as faith unless it results in obedience ( James 2:20 ; Romans 1:5 ).

  3. But the wrath of God abideth on him. "Wrath of God" is a strong phrase, and is not to be lightly explained away. The unconverted sinnerrests under this wrath. His study should be not only to avert asentence to be pronounced at some future day, but to be freed from onealready resting upon him. This verse shows conclusively that Christ'satoning work had its divine as well as its human side; that God had tobe propitiated as truly as man had to be reconciled. The Baptist hadalready repeatedly warned the Jewish people of the wrath to come ifthey rejected the Messiah, and in this, his last recorded utterance, heboldly reiterates that warning.