Solomon's Officials

1 King Solomon ruled over Israel,

References for 1 Kings 4:1

      2 and these were his officials: Azariah son of Zadok, priest;
      3 Elihoreph and Ahijah the sons of Shisha, secretaries; Jehoshaphat son of Ahilud, historian;
      4 Benaiah son of Jehoiada, in charge of the army; Zadok and Abiathar, priests;
      5 Azariah son of Nathan, in charge of the deputies; Zabud son of Nathan, a priest and adviser to the king;a

      References for 1 Kings 4:5

        • a 4:5 - 2 Sm 15:32-37; 16:16-19
          6 Ahishar, in charge of the palace; and Adoniram son of Abda, in charge of forced labor.
          7 Solomon had 12 deputies for all Israel. They provided food for the king and his household; each one made provision for one month out of the year.b

          References for 1 Kings 4:7

            • b 4:7 - 1 Kg 4:27
              8 These were their names: Ben-hur, in the hill country of Ephraim;
              9 Ben-deker, in Makaz, Shaalbim, Beth-shemesh, and Elon-beth-hanan;
              10 Ben-hesed, in Arubboth (he had Socoh and the whole land of Hepher);
              11 Ben-abinadab, in all Naphath-dor (Taphath daughter of Solomon was his wife);
              12 Baana son of Ahilud, in Taanach, Megiddo, and all Beth-shean which is beside Zarethan below Jezreel, from Beth-shean to Abel-meholah, as far as the other side of Jokmeam;
              13 Ben-geber, in Ramoth-gilead (he had the villages of Jair son of Manasseh, which are in Gilead, and he had the region of Argob, which is in Bashan, 60 great cities with walls and bronze bars);
              14 Ahinadab son of Iddo, [in] Mahanaim;
              15 Ahimaaz, in Naphtali (he also had married a daughter of Solomon-Basemath);
              16 Baana son of Hushai, in Asher and Bealoth;
              17 Jehoshaphat son of Paruah, in Issachar;
              18 Shimei son of Ela, in Benjamin;
              19 Geber son of Uri, in the land of Gilead, the country of Sihon king of the Amorites and of Og king of Bashan. There was one deputy in the land of Judah.c

              References for 1 Kings 4:19

                • c 4:19 - LXX; Hb omits of Judah

                  Solomon's Provisions

                  20 Judah and Israel were as numerous as the sand by the sea; [they were] eating, drinking, and rejoicing.

                  References for 1 Kings 4:20

                      21 d Solomon ruled over all the kingdoms from the Euphrates River to the land of the Philistines and as far as the border of Egypt.e They offered tribute and served Solomon all the days of his life.

                      References for 1 Kings 4:21

                        • d 4:21 - 1 Kg 5:1 in Hb
                        • e 4:21 - Gn 15:18; 2 Ch 9:26; Isa 27:12
                          22 Solomon's provisions for one day were 150 bushelsf of fine flour and 300 bushelsg of meal,

                          References for 1 Kings 4:22

                            • f 4:22 - Lit 30 cors
                            • g 4:22 - Lit 60 cors
                              23 10 fattened oxen, 20 range oxen, and 100 sheep, besides deer, gazelles, roebucks, and pen-fed poultry,h

                              References for 1 Kings 4:23

                                • h 4:23 - Hb obscure
                                  24 for he had dominion over everything west of the Euphrates from Tiphsah to Gaza and over all the kings west of the Euphrates. He had peace on all his surrounding borders.
                                  25 Throughout Solomon's [reign], Judah and Israel lived in safety from Dan to Beer-sheba, each man under his own vine and his own fig tree.i

                                  References for 1 Kings 4:25

                                    • i 4:25 - Mc 4:3-4; Zch 3:10
                                      26 Solomon had 40,000j stalls of horses for his chariots, and 12,000 horsemen.k

                                      References for 1 Kings 4:26

                                        • j 4:26 - Some LXX mss read 4,000, as does 1 Ch 9:25; 1 Kg 10:26, 2 Ch 1:14 reads 1,400
                                        • k 4:26 - Dt 17:16
                                          27 Each of those deputies for a month in turn provided food for King Solomon and for everyone who came to King Solomon's table.l They neglected nothing.

                                          References for 1 Kings 4:27

                                              28 Each man brought the barley and the straw for the chariot teams and the other horses to the required place according to his assignment.m

                                              References for 1 Kings 4:28

                                                • m 4:28 - Lit judgment

                                                  Solomon's Wisdom and Literary Gifts

                                                  29 God gave Solomon wisdom, very great insight, and understanding as [vast] as the sand on the seashore.

                                                  References for 1 Kings 4:29

                                                      30 Solomon's wisdom was greater than the wisdom of all the people of the East, greater than all the wisdom of Egypt.
                                                      31 He was wiser than anyone-wiser than Ethan the Ezrahite,n and Heman, Calcol,o and Darda, sons of Mahol. His reputation extended to all the surrounding nations.

                                                      References for 1 Kings 4:31

                                                        • n 4:31 - Pss 88 and 89 superscriptions
                                                        • o 4:31 - 1 Ch 2:6
                                                          32 Solomon composed 3,000 proverbs, and his songs numbered 1,005.
                                                          33 He described trees, from the cedar in Lebanon to the hyssop growing out of the wall. He also taught about animals, birds, reptiles, and fish.
                                                          34 People came from everywhere, [sent] by every king on earth who had heard of his wisdom, to listen to Solomon's wisdom.