used to denote the means by which a door is bolted ( Nehemiah 3:3 ); a rock in the sea ( Jonah 2:6 ); the shore of the sea ( Job 38:10 ); strong fortifications and powerful impediments, etc. ( Isaiah 45:2 ; Amos 1:5 ); defences of a city ( 1 Kings 4:13 ). A bar for a door was of iron ( Isaiah 45:2 ), brass ( Psalms 107:16 ), or wood ( Nahum 3:13 ).
During the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, he was the keeper of the deed of purchase Jeremiah had made of the territory of Hanameel ( Jeremiah 32:12 ). Being accused by his enemies of favouring the Chaldeans, he was cast, with Jeremiah, into prison, where he remained till the capture of Jerusalem (B.C. 586). He probably died in Babylon.
who is blessed
ba'-ruk, bar'-uk (baruk; Barouch, "blessed"):
(1) Son of Neriah and brother of Seraiah, King Zedekiah's chamberlain (Jeremiah 51:59). He was the devoted friend (Jeremiah 32:12), the amanuensis (36:4,32) and faithful attendant (36:10; Josephus, Ant, X, vi, 2) of the prophet Jeremiah. He seems to have been of noble family (see Ant, X, ix, 1; compare Jeremiah 51:59; Baruch 1:1). He was also according to Josephus a man of unusual acquirements (Ant., X, ix, 1). He might have risen to a high position and seemed conscious of this, but under Jeremiah's influence (see Jeremiah 45:5) he repressed his ambition, being content to throw in his lot with the great prophet whose secretary and companion he became. Jeremiah dictated his prophecies to Baruch, who read them to the people (Jeremiah 36). The king (Jehoiakim) was greatly angered at these prophecies and had Baruch arrested and the roll burnt. Baruch however rewrote the prophet's oracles. In the final siege of Jerusalem Baruch stood by his master, witnessing the purchase by the latter of his ancestral estate in Anathoth (Jeremiah 32). According to Josephus (Ant., X, ix, 1) he continued to reside with Jeremiah at Mizpah after the fall of Jerusalem. Subsequent to the murder of Gedaliah, he was accused of having unduly influenced Jeremiah when the latter urged the people to remain in Judah--a fact which shows how great was the influence which Baruch was believed to have had over his master (Jeremiah 43:3). He was carried with Jeremiah to Egypt (Jeremiah 43:6; Ant, X, ix, 6), and thereafter our knowledge of him is merely legendary. According to a tradition preserved by Jerome (on Isaiah 30:6 f) he died in Egypt soon after reaching that country. Two other traditions say that he went, or by Nebuchadnezzar was carried, to Babylon after this king conquered Egypt. The high character of Baruch and the important part he played in the life and work of Jeremiah induced later generations still further to enhance his reputation, and a large number of spurious writings passed under his name, among them the following:
(a) The \APOCALYPSE OF BARUCH\ (which see);
(b) the Book of Baruch;
(c) the Rest of the Words of Baruch;
(d) the Gnostic Book of Baruch;
(e) the Latin Book of Baruch, composed originally in Latin;
(f) a Greek Apocalypse of Baruch belonging to the 2nd century of our era;
(g) another Book of Baruch belonging to the 4th or 5th century.
(2) A son of Zabbai who aided Nehemiah in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 3:20).
(3) One of the priests who signed the covenant with Nehemiah (Nehemiah 10:6).
(4) The son of Colhozeh, a descendant of Perez, the son of Judah (Nehemiah 11:5).
T. Witton Davies
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