The arts of carving and engraving were much in request in the construction of both the tabernacle and the temple. ( Exodus 31:5 ; 35:33 ; 1 Kings 6:18 1 Kings 6:35 ; Psalms 74:6 ) as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses. ( Exodus 28:9-36 ; 2 Chronicles 2:7 2 Chronicles 2:14 ; Zechariah 3:9 )
Carving, or engraving, was extensively used among the peoples of Bible lands. There were no materials used in the arts which were not subjected to the graver's skill. Carved objects of wood, stone, ivory, clay, bronze, gold, silver and glass discovered today show how skillful the ancient carvers were. Carving was principally done in bas- relief, although Exodus 28:11 shows that incised lines were also used. The signets and scarabs are examples of this class of carving. Several Hebrew words have been translated "carved" in the King James Version. Pecel or pecil is found in Judges 18:18; 2 Chronicles 33:7,22; 34:3,1; chaqah in 1 Kings 6:35. The translation "graven" appears in the Revised Version (British and American) of all these passages. In 1 Kings 6:29,32,35, qala appears; in 1 Kings 6:18,32, miqla`ath; in 1 Kings 6:29 and Psalms 74:6, pittuach; in Exodus 31:5; 35:33, charosheth (see CARPENTER); chaTubhah in Proverbs 7:16 is better translated "striped" as in the Revised Version (British and American). For further notes on carving, see CRAFTS.
James A. Patch
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