In the Old Testament the word miqdas [v'D.qim] (from qds, "holy, " implying a distinction between space that is "sacred" versus "profane") commonly refers to the worship "sanctuary" (e.g., Exod 25:8 ), where the Israelites offered their various kinds of offerings and sacrifices to the Lord under the supervision of the priesthood. As in English, however, where the word "sanctuary" can sometimes refer to a "refuge, " there are two instances where the Lord refers to himself metaphorically as the "sanctuary" (i.e., refuge) of faithful Israelites in distress ( Isa 8:14 ; Ezek 11:16 ). The more abstract term qodes ("holiness, sacredness") also many times refers concretely to a "holy place" (e.g., Exod 30:13 ).
In the New Testament hagios [a&gio"] (i.e., "holy [place]") means "sanctuary in nine instances, all in the Book of Hebrews. It also occurs three times as an adjective for the temple as the "holy place" of Israel ( Matt 24:15 ; Acts 6:13 ; 21:28 ). Other Old Testament and New Testament words may sometimes refer to or can even be translated "sanctuary" in some English versions, but none of them actually mean "sanctuary, " strictly speaking.
Although the Hebrew term miqdas [v'D.qim] can be used of sacred objects within a "sanctuary" ( Num 10:21 ), it most often refers to open air or housed sanctuaries as whole units, whether they be foreign "sanctuaries" ( Isa 16:12 ; Ezek 28:18 ), multiple Israelite sanctuaries (whether illegitimate, Lev 26:31 ; Ezek 21:2 ; Amos 7:9 Amos 7:13 , or legitimate, e.g., Joshua 24:26 ), the tabernacle complex (e.g., Exod 25:8 ), the Solomonic temple (e.g., 1 Chron 22:19 ; eg 1:1 28:10 ), the second temple ( Neh 10:39 ), or the future temple on Mount Zion (e.g., Ezekiel 37:26 Ezekiel 37:28 ; 44:9-16 ).
When referring to the tabernacle, miqdas [v'D.qim] commonly designates the entire worship complex ( Exod 25:8a ) as the special sanctified dwelling place of the Lord among his people, in the midst of which was the building known as the "tabernacle" ( 25:9 ) and over which they stretched a "tent" ( 26:7 ). It can refer to the multiple holy precincts within the tabernacle or temple complex (note the plural "sanctuaries" in Lev 21:23 ; Psalm 73:17 ; Jer 51:51 ), the "holy place" where incense was offered (only once, 2 Chron 26:18 ), and possibly to "the Most Holy Place" (only once, Lev 16:33a ).
Like miqdas [v'D.qim], when qodes [v, doq] is used of a "holy place" (as opposed to holy people or things) it sometimes refers overall to the entire worship complex (e.g., Exod 30:13 ; 36:1 ; Lev 10:4 ; 2 Chronicles 29:5 2 Chronicles 29:7 ; Psalm 74:3 ; Ezek 44:27 ). However, it is also used alone or in various combinations to distinguish between certain holy precincts within the sanctuary, specifically, the area of the court near the altar sometimes referred to as "the holy place" ( Lev 10:17-18 ), the outer "Holy Place" in the tabernacle or temple building itself (e.g., Exod 26:33 ; 1 Kings 8:10 ; 2 Chron 5:11 ; Ezek 42:14 ), and the inner "holy place" ( Lev 16:2 ; 4:6] ) which is the "Most Holy Place"), where the ark of the covenant was located. When these terms are used together in the same context, miqdas [v'D.qim] tends to signify the whole complex as a unit within which one would find the tent or house structure known as the qodes [v,doq] and all its various furnishings.
The Lord determined that he would dwell in a sanctuary in the midst of his "kingdom of priests, " his "holy nation" ( Exod 19:6 ; Psalm 68:32-35 ). They were to stand in awe and fear of this ( Lev 19:30 ) as when they "trembled" at the Lord's appearance on Mount Sinai ( Exod 19:16 ). This sanctuary was the primary place where the Lord manifested his presence in the midst of Israel ( Exod 40:34-38 ) and, therefore, became the preeminent place of worship ( Leviticus 9:6 Leviticus 9:22-24 ).
The Lord sanctified the sanctuary and with it an officiating "Aaronic priesthood" ( Exod 29:44 ; Lev 8:10 ; Num 7:1 ). To the latter he assigned the responsibility of maintaining the sanctity of the Lord's presence in the sanctuary ( Leviticus 10:10-11 Leviticus 10:17 ; Num 18:1 ; Deut 18:5 ) lest the people "die in their uncleanness for defiling my dwelling place, which is among them" ( Lev 15:31 ). However, because he was dealing with a sinful and unclean people who would inevitably defile the sanctuary, the Lord provided for its regular cleansing (see, e.g., the regular sin offering in Lev 4:1-5:13 ) as well as the annual cleansing and (re)sanctifying of the defiled sanctuary ( Lev 16:19 ). Nevertheless, he warned that he would completely abandon his sanctuary if his covenant people abandoned him ( 1 Kings 9:6-7 ; 2 Chron 7:20 ), a threat he eventually acted upon.
Of course, the New Testament writers were, by and large, fully familiar with the Jerusalem sanctuary complex, but it was the writer of Hebrews who developed the theology of the "sanctuary" motif. He began with the "heavenly sanctuary" ( 8:22 ) as the model or "pattern" ( 8:5 ) of which the "earthly" and "man-made sanctuary" ( Hebrews 9:1 Hebrews 9:24 ) was only a "copy" ( 9:23-24 ). In the Old Testament earthly sanctuary there was a tabernacle (tent) or building in which there was an outer room called "the Holy Place" separated by a veil from an inner room called "the Most Holy Place, " which only the high priest could enter and even he only once a year. Jesus entered the "holy of holies" of the "heavenly" sanctuary for us ( 9:25 ; cf. 8:1-5 ) when he sacrificed his own body as our High Priest once for all ( 9:24-25 ). By this means he, in fact, granted us direct access into the heavenly sanctuary and, indeed, the very presence of God ( 10:19 ; cf. 4:14-16 ).
Richard E. Averbeck
Bibliography. G. D. Alles, The Encyclopedia of Religion, 13:59-60; D. N. Freedman, Temples and High Places in Biblical Times, pp. 21-30; M. Haran, Temples and Temple-Service in Ancient Israel, pp. 13-57, 149-204; P. P. Jenson, Graded Holiness: A Key to the Priestly Conception of the World; T. E. McComiskey, TWOT, 2:786-89; O. Procksch and K. G. Kuhn, TDNT, 1:88-115; R. de Vaux, Ancient Israel, 2:271-330; D. P. Wright, The Disposal of Impurity.
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denotes, (1) the Holy Land ( Exodus 15:17 ; Compare Psalms 114:2 ); (2) the temple ( 1 Chronicles 22:19 ; 2 Chr 29:21 ); (3) the tabernacle ( Exodus 25:8 ; Leviticus 12:4 ; 21:12 ); (4) the holy place, the place of the Presence (Gr. hieron, the temple-house; not the naos , which is the temple area, with its courts and porches), Leviticus 4:6 ; Ephesians 2:21 , RSV, marg.; (5) God's holy habitation in heaven ( Psalms 102:19 ). In the final state there is properly "no sanctuary" ( Revelation 21:22 ), for God and the Lamb "are the sanctuary" (RSV, "temple"). All is there hallowed by the Divine Presence; all is sancturary.
sank'-tu-a-ri, sank'-tu-a-ri (miqdash, miqqedhash, qodhesh, "holy place"; hagion):
1. Nature of Article
2. The Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis
The Three Stages
3. Difficulties of the Theory
(1) Slaughter Not Necessarily Sacrificial
(2) Sacrifice and Theophany
(3) Alleged Plurality of Sanctuaries
(4) The Altar of God's House
(5) Local Altars in Deuteronomy
4. The Alternative View
(1) Lay Sacrifice
(2) Three Pilgrimage Festivals
5. The Elephantine Papyri
The Elephantine Temple
1. Nature of Article:
The present article is designed to supplement the articles on ALTAR; HIGH PLACE; PENTATEUCH; TABERNACLE; TEMPLE, by giving an outline of certain rival views of the course of law and history as regards the place of worship. The subject has a special importance because it was made the turning-point of Wellhausen's discussion of the development of Israel's literature, history and religion. He himself writes:
"I differ from Graf chiefly in this, that I always go back to the centralization of the cult, and deduce from it the particular divergences. My whole position is contained in my first chapter" (Prolegomena, 368). For the purposes of this discussion it is necessary to use the symbols J, E, D, H, and the Priestly Code (P), which are explained in the article PENTATEUCH.
It is said that there are three distinct stages of law and history.
2. The Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis:
The Three Stages:
(1) In the first stage all slaughter of domestic animals for food purposes was sacrificial, and every layman could sacrifice locally at an altar of earth or unhewn stones. The law of JE is contained in Exodus 20:24-26, providing for the making of an altar of earth or stones, and emphasis is laid on the words "in every place ("in all the place" is grammatically an equally possible rendering) where I record my name I will come unto thee and I will bless thee." This, it is claimed, permits a plurality of sanctuaries. Illustrations are provided by the history. The patriarchs move about the country freely and build altars at various places. Later sacrifices or altars are mentioned in connection with Jethro (Exodus 18:12), Moses (Exodus 17:15, etc.), Joshua (Joshua 8:30), Gideon (Judges 6:26 etc.), Manoah (Judges 13:19), Samuel (1 Samuel 7:17, etc.), Elijah (1 Kings 18:32), to take but a few instances. Perhaps the most instructive case is that of Saul after the battle of Michmash. Observing that the people were eating meat with blood, he caused a large stone to be rolled to him, and we are expressly told that this was the first altar that he built to the Lord (1 Samuel 14:35). While some of these examples might be accounted for by theophanies or other special circumstances, they are too numerous when taken together for such an explanation to suffice. In many instances they represent the conduct of the most authoritative and religious leaders of the age, e.g. Samuel, and it must be presumed that such men knew and acted upon the Law of their own day. Hence, the history and the Law of Exodus 20 are in unison in permitting a multiplicity of sanctuaries. Wellhausen adds:
"Altars as a rule are not built by the patriarchs according to their own private judgment wheresoever they please; on the contrary, a theophany calls attention to, or, at least afterward, confirms, the holiness of the place" (op. cit., 31).
(2) The second stage is presented by Deuteronomy in the Law and Josiah's reformation in the history. Undoubtedly, Deuteronomy 12 permits local non-sacrificial slaughter for the purposes of food, and enjoins the destruction of heathen places of worship, insisting with great vehemence on the central sanctuary. The narrative of Josiah's reformation in 2 Kings 23 tallies with these principles.
(3) The third great body of law (the Priestly Code, P) does not deal with the question (save in one passage, Leviticus 17). In Deuteronomy "the unity of the cult is commanded; in the Priestly Code it is presupposed. .... What follows from this forms the question before us. To my thinking, this:
that the Priestly Code rests upon the result which is only the aim of Deuteronomy" (Prolegomena, 35). Accordingly, it is later than the latter book and dates from about the time of Ezra. As to Leviticus 17:1-9, this belongs to H (the Law of Holiness, Leviticus 17:1-26:46), an older collection of laws than the Priestly Code (P), and is taken up in the latter. Its intention was "to secure the exclusive legitimation of the one lawful place of sacrifice. .... Plainly the common man did not quite understand the newly drawn and previously quite unknown distinction between the religious and the profane act" (Prolegomena, 50). Accordingly, this legislator strove to meet the difficulty by the new enactment.
See CRITICISM (The Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis).
3. Difficulties of the Theory:
(1) Slaughter Not Necessarily Sacrificial
The general substratum afforded by the documentary theory falls within the scope of the article PENTATEUCH. The present discussion is limited to the legal and historical outline traced above. The view that all slaughter of domestic animals was sacrificial till the time of Josiah is rebutted by the evidence of the early books. The following examples should be noted:
in Genesis 18:7 a calf is slain without any trace of a sacrifice, and in 27:9-14 (Jacob's substitute for venison) no altar or religious rite can fairly be postulated. In 1 Samuel 28:24 the slaughter is performed by a woman, so that here again sacrifice is out of the question. If Gideon performed a sacrifice when he "made ready a kid" (Judges 6:19) or when he killed an animal for the broth of which the narrative speaks, the animals in question must have been sacrificed twice over, once when they were killed and again when the food was consumed by flames. Special importance attaches to Exodus 22:1 (Hebrew 21:37), for there the JE legislation itself speaks of slaughter by cattle thieves as a natural and probable occurrence, and it can surely not have regarded this as a sacrificial act. Other instances are to be found in Genesis 43:16; 1 Samuel 25:11; 1 Kings 19:21. In 1 Samuel 8:13 the word translated "cooks" means literally, "women slaughterers." All these instances are prior to the date assigned to Deuteronomy. With respect to Leviticus 17:1-7 also, theory is unworkable. At any time in King Josiah's reign or after, it would have been utterly impossible to limit all slaughter of animals for the whole race wherever resident to one single spot. This part of theory therefore breaks down.
(2) Sacrifice and Theophany
The view that the altars were erected at places that were peculiarly holy, or at any rate were subsequently sanctified by a theophany, is also untenable. In the Patriarchal age we may refer to Genesis 4:26, where the calling on God implies sacrifice but not theophanies, Abram at Beth-el (12:8) and Mamre (13:18), and Jacob's sacrifices (31:54; 33:20). Compare later Samuel's altar at Ramah, Adonijah's sacrifice at En-rogel (1 Kings 1), Naaman's earth (2 Kings 5), David's clan's sacrifice (1 Samuel 20:6,29). It is impossible to postulate theophanies for the sacrifices of every clan in the country, and it becomes necessary to translate Exodus 20:24 "in all the place" (see supra 2, (1)) and to understand "the place" as the territory of Israel.
(3) Alleged Plurality of Sanctuaries
The hypothesis of a multiplicity of sanctuaries in JE and the history also leaves out of view many most important facts. The truth is that the word "sanctuary" is ambiguous and misleading. A plurality of altars of earth or stone is not a plurality of sanctuaries. The early legislation knows a "house of Yahweh" in addition to the primitive altars (Exodus 23:19; 34:26; compare the parts of Joshua 9:23,27 assigned to J). No eyewitness could mistake a house for an altar, or vice versa.
(4) The Altar of God's House
Moreover a curious little bit of evidence shows that the "house" had quite a different kind of altar. In 1 Kings 1:50; 2:28, we hear of the horns of the altar (compare Amos 3:14). Neither earth nor unhewn stones (as required by the Law of Exodus 20) could provide such horns, and the historical instances of the altars of the patriarchs, religious leaders, etc., to which reference has been made, show that they had no horns. Accordingly, we are thrown back on the description of the great altar of burnt offering in Exodus 27 and must assume that an altar of this type was to be found before the ark before Solomon built his Temple. Thus the altar of the House of God was quite different from the customary lay altar, and when we read of "mine altar" as a refuge in Exodus 21:14, we must refer it to the former, as is shown by the passages just cited. In addition to the early legislation and the historical passages cited as recognizing a House of God with a horned altar, we see such a house in Shiloh where Eli and his sons of the house of Aaron (1 Samuel 2:27) ministered. Thus the data of both JE and the history show us a House of God with a horned altar side by side with the multiplicity of stone or earthen altars, but give us no hint of a plurality of legitimate houses or shrines or sanctuaries.
(5) Local Altars in Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy also recognizes a number of local altars in 16:21 (see ICC, at the place) and so does Later Deuteronomistic editors in Joshua 8:30. There is no place for any of these passages ia the Wellhausen theory; but again we find one house side by side with many lay altars.
4. The Alternative View:
(1) Lay Sacrifice
The alternative view seeks to account for the whole of the facts noted above. In bald outline it is as follows:
In pre-Mosaic times customary sacrifices had been freely offered by laymen at altars of earth or stone which were not "sanctuaries," but places that could be used for the nonce and then abandoned. Slaughter, as shown by the instances cited, was not necessarily sacrificial. Moses did not forbid or discourage the custom he found. On the contrary, he regulated it in Exodus 20:24-26; Deuteronomy 16:21 f to prevent possible abuses. But he also superimposed two other kinds of sacrifice--certain new offerings to be brought by individuals to the religious capital and the national offerings of Numbers 28; 29 and other passages. If the Priestly Code (P) assumes the religious capital as axiomatic, the reason is that this portion of the Law consists of teaching entrusted to the priests, embracing the procedure to be followed in these two classes of offerings, and does not refer at all to the procedure at customary lay sacrifices, which was regulated by immemorial custom. Deuteronomy thunders not against the lay altars--which are never even mentioned in this connection--but against the Canaanite high places. Deuteronomy 12 contemplates only the new individual offerings. The permission of lay slaughter for food was due to the fact that the infidelity of the Israelites in the wilderness (Leviticus 17:5-7) had led to the universal prohibition of lay slaughter for the period of the wanderings only, though it appears to be continued by De for those who lived near the House of God (see Deuteronomy 12:21, limited to the case "if the place .... be too far from thee").
(2) Three Pilgrimage Festivals.
The JE legislation itself recognizes the three pilgrimage festivals of the House of God (Exodus 34:22). One of these festivals is called "the feast of weeks, even of the bikkurim (a kind of first-fruits) of wheat harvest," and as Exodus 23:19 and 34:26 require these bikkurim to be brought to the House of God and not to a lay altar, it follows that the pilgrimages are as firmly established here as in Deuteronomy. Thus we find a House (with a horned altar) served by priests and lay altars of earth or stone side by side in law and history till the exile swept them all away, and by breaking the continuity of tradition and practice paved the way for a new and artificial interpretation of the Law that was far removed from the intent of the lawgiver.
5. The Elephantine Papyri:
The Elephantine Temple.
Papyri have recently been found at Elephantine which show us a Jewish community in Egypt which in 405 BC possessed a local temple. On the Wellhausen hypothesis it is usual to assume that the Priestly Code (P) and Deuteronomy were still unknown and not recognized as authoritative in this community at that date, although the Deuteronomic law of the central sanctuary goes back at least to 621. It is difficult to understand how a law that had been recognized as divine by Jeremiah and others could still have been unknown or destitute of authority. On the alternative view this phenomenon will have been the result of an interpretation of the Law to suit the needs of an age some 800 years subsequent to the death of Moses in circumstances he never contemplated. The Pentateuch apparently permits sacrifice only in the land of Israel:
in the altered circumstances the choice lay between interpreting the Law in this way or abandoning public worship altogether; for the synagogue with its non-sacrificial form of public worship had not yet been invented. All old legislations have to be construed in this way to meet changing circumstances, and this example contains nothing exceptional or surprising.
J. Wellhausen, Prolegomena to the History of Israel, chapter i, for the critical hypothesis; H. M. Wiener, EPC, chapter vi, PS passim for the alternative view; POT, 173.
Harold M. Wiener
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