(Heb. galgal; rendered "wheel" in Psalms 83:13 , and "a rolling thing" in Isaiah 17:13 ; RSV in both, "whirling dust"). This word has been supposed to mean the wild artichoke, which assumes the form of a globe, and in autumn breaks away from its roots, and is rolled about by the wind in some places in great numbers.
(2) galgal, "rolling thing," generally in the sense of "wheel" (Isaiah 5:28, etc.), but the Revised Version (British and American) in Ezekiel 10:2,6,13 has "whirling wheels," an advantageous change. The "wheel .... broken at the cistern" in Ecclesiastes 12:6 is the windlass for drawing the water, and by the figure the breakdown of the old man's breathing apparatus is probably meant. In Psalms 83:13, the King James Version has "wheel," but this translation (that of the Septuagint) is quite impossible; the Revised Version (British and American) "whirling dust" (sucked up by a miniature whirlwind) is perhaps right, but the translations proposed are end-less.
(3) gilgal, Isaiah 28:28, the roller of a threshing wagon.
(4) 'obhnayim, Jeremiah 18:3. See POTTER.
(5) pa`am, Judges 5:28, literally, "step" (so the Revised Version margin), and the sound of horses' hoofs is intended.
(6) trochos, Sirach 33:5; James 3:6 (the King James Version "course"). In the former passage, "The heart of a fool is as a cart-wheel," the changeableness of a light disposition is satirized. In James the figure is of a wheel in rotation, so that a flame starting at any point is quickly communicated to the whole. Just so an apparently insignificant sin of the tongue produces an incalculably destructive effect.
The phrase "wheel of nature" (trochos tes geneseos) is used here for "the world in progress." It is not a very natural figure and has given rise to much discussion. the King James Version accents trochos ("course") instead of trochos (" wheel"). but the language throughout is metaphorical and "course" is not a sufficiently metaphorical word. The translation "birth" for geneseos (so the Revised Version margin). i.e. "a wheel set in motion by birth." is out of the question. as the argument turns on results wider than any individual's existence. "Wheel of nature" is certainly right. But a comparison of life to a wheel in some sense or other (chiefly that of "Fortune's wheel") is common enough in Greek and Latin writers, and, indeed the exact combination trochos geneseos is found in at least one (Orphic) writer (full references in the commentaries of Mayor and W. Bauer). It would seem, then, that James had heard the phrase, and he used it as a striking figure, with entire indifference to any technical significance it might have. This supposition is preferable to that of an awkward translation from the Aramaic.
Burton Scott Easton
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