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How

HOW

Represents various Hebrew and Greek words, interrogative, interjectional and relative. Its different uses refer to

(1) the manner or way, e.g. Genesis 44:34, "How shall I go up to my father?" ('ekh); Matthew 6:28, "how they grow" (pos); 1 Corinthians 15:35, "How are the dead raised?";

(2) degree, extent, frequently, "how great" (Daniel 4:3, mah; Mark 5:19, hosos, "how much"); "how many" (Matthew 27:13, posos); "how much" (Acts 9:13, hosos); "how much more" (Matthew 7:11, posos; 1 Samuel 14:30, 'aph ki); "how oft" (Psalms 78:40, kammah; Matthew 18:21, posakis); "how long" (Job 7:19, kammah; Matthew 17:17, heos pote), etc.;

(3) the reason, wherefore, etc. (Matthew 18:12; Luke 12:49, tis);

(4) means--by what means? (John 3:4,9, pos);

(5) cause (John 12:34; Acts 2:8; 4:21, pos);

(6) condition, in what state, etc. (Luke 23:55, hos; Acts 15:36, pos; Ephesians 6:21, tis); "how" is sometimes used to emphasize a statement or exclamation (2 Samuel 1:19,25,27, "How are the mighty fallen!"); "how" is also used for "that" (Genesis 30:29, 'eth 'asher, frequently "how that"; Exodus 9:29, ki most frequently, in the New Testament, hoti, Matthew 12:5; 16:12,21; Acts 7:25; Romans 7:1, etc., in the King James Version).

The Revised Version (British and American) has "wherefore" for "how" (Genesis 38:29, margin "how"); has "what" (Judges 13:12; 1 Kings 12:6; Job 13; 1 Corinthians 14:26), omits (2 Corinthians 13:5); has "how that" (1 Samuel 2:22); "that" (1 Chronicles 18:9; Luke 1:58; Galatians 4:13; James 2:22; Revelation 2:2); has "that even" for "how that" (Hebrews 12:17);" What is this?" for "How is it that?" (Luke 16:2); omits" How is it ?" (Mark 2:16, different text); has "Do ye not yet," for "How is it that?" (Mark 8:21); "Have ye not yet" (Mark 4:40, different text); "what" for "how much" (Luke 19:15, different text); omits "how that" (Luke 7:22); "then how" (James 2:24); has "cannot" for "How can he" (1John 4:20); omits "How hast thou" (Job 26:3), "how is" (Jeremiah 51:41); has "how" for "the fashion which" (Genesis 6:15), for "and" (Exodus 18:1), for "what" (Judges 18:24; 1 Samuel 4:16; 1 Corinthians 7:16), for "why" (Job 19:28; 31:1; Jeremiah 2:33; Galatians 2:14), for "when" (Job 37:15), for "for" (Psalms 42:4), for "but God" (Proverbs 21:12), for "whereunto" (Mark 4:30); for "by what means" (Luke 8:36; John 9:21), for "how greatly" (Philippians 1:8); "how that" for "because" (Ezekiel 6:9; 1 Thessalonians 1:5), for "and how" (Acts 20:20); "know how to" for "can" (Matthew 16:3); "how" for "by whom" (Amos 7:2,5).

"How" in compounds gives us Howbeit (how be it). It is the translation of 'ulam, "but," "truly," "yet" (Judges 18:29); of 'akh, "certainly," "only" (1 Samuel 8:9); of 'ephes, "moreover," etc. (2 Samuel 12:14); of ken, "so," "thus" (2 Chronicles 32:31); of rak, "only," "surely" "nevertheless" (1 Kings 11:13); of alla, "but," etc. (John 7:27; Acts 7:48; 1 Corinthians 8:7, etc.); of de, "but," etc. (John 6:23); of mentoi (John 7:13 the King James Version); many other instances.

For "howbeit," the Revised Version (British and American) has frequently "but" (2 Kings 12:13, etc.), "and" (2 Chronicles 21:20; Mark 5:19), "surely" (ERV) (Job 30:24), "now" (John 11:13), "yet" (2 Corinthians 11:21), "nay, did" (Hebrews 3:16); omits (Matthew 17:21, different text); it has "howbeit" for "but" (2 Kings 12:3; Luke 19:27; John 5:34, etc.), for "also" (Leviticus 23:27,39), for "nevertheless" (Numbers 13:28; 1 Kings 22:43; Mark 14:36; Luke 13:33 the English Revised Version; Luke 18:8; 2 Timothy 2:19), for "notwithstanding" (Joshua 22:19; Luke 10:20 the English Revised Version, "nevertheless" the American Standard Revised Version; (Philippians 4:14), for "nay" (Romans 7:7).

Howsoever (in what manner soever, although, however) is the translation of kol 'asher, "all that which," etc. (Zec 3:7, "howsoever I punished them," the Revised Version (British and American) "according to all that I have appointed concerning her," margin "howsoever I have punished her"; the English Revised Version omits "have"); of raq, "only," "surely," "nevertheless" (Judges 19:20); of yehi-mah, "let be what" (2 Samuel 18:22,23, the Revised Version (British and American) "but come what may"); in 2 Samuel 24:3 "how" and "soever" are separated (kahem), "how many soever they may be," literally, "as they and as they."

W. L. Walker


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Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'HOW'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.