Q79: Why then doth Christ call the bread "his body", and the cup "his blood", or "the new covenant in his blood"; and Paul the "communion of body and blood of Christ"?
Christ speaks thus, not without great reason, namely, not only thereby to teach us, that as bread and wine support this temporal life, so his crucified body and shed blood are the true meat and drink, whereby our souls are fed to eternal life; ( john 6:51 john 6:55 ) but more especially by these visible signs and pledges to assure us, that we are as really partakers of his true body and blood by the operation of the Holy Ghost as we receive by the mouths of our bodies these holy signs in remembrance of him; ( 1cor 10:16 1cor 10:17 ) and that all his sufferings and obedience are as certainly ours, as if we had in our own persons suffered and made satisfaction for our sins to God.
Q80: What difference is there between the Lord's supper and the popish mass?
The Lord's supper testifies to us, that we have a full pardon of all sin by the only sacrifice of Jesus Christ, which he himself has once accomplished on the cross; ( Hebrews 7:27 ; Hebrews 9:12 Hebrews 9:25-28 ; Hebrews 10:10 Hebrews 10:12-14 ; John 19:30 ; Matthew 26:28 ; luke 22:19 luke 22:20 ) and, that we by the Holy Ghost are ingrafted into Christ, ( 1 Corinthians 6:17 ; 1 Corinthians 10:16 ) who, according to his human nature is now not on earth, but in heaven, at the right hand of God his Father, ( Hebrews 1:3 ; Hebrews 8:1 Hebrews 8:2 ; John 20:17 ) and will there be worshipped by us. ( matt 6:20 matt 6:21 ; John 4:21-24 ; Luke 24:52 ; acts 7:55 acts 7:56 ; Colossians 3:1 ; philip 3:20 philip 3:21 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:10 ; Hebrews 9:6-10 ) But the mass teaches, that the living and dead have not the pardon of sins through the sufferings of Christ, unless Christ is also daily offered for them by the priests; and further, that Christ is bodily under the form of bread and wine, and therefore is to be worshipped in them; so that the mass, at bottom, is nothing else than a denial of the one sacrifice and sufferings of Jesus Christ, and an accursed idolatry. ( Hebrews 9:26 ; Hebrews 10:12 Hebrews 10:14 Hebrews 10:19-31 )
Q81: For whom is the Lord's supper instituted?
For those who are truly sorrowful for their sins, and yet trust that these are forgiven them for the sake of Christ; and that their remaining infirmities are covered by his passion and death; and who also earnestly desire to have their faith more and more strengthened, and their lives more holy; but hypocrites, and such as turn not to God with sincere hearts, eat and drink judgment to themselves. ( 1 Corinthians 10:19-22 ; 1cor 11:28 1cor 11:29 )
Q82: Are they also to be admitted to this supper, who, by confession and life, declare themselves unbelieving and ungodly?
No; for by this, the covenant of God would be profaned, and his wrath kindled against the whole congregation; ( 1cor 11:20 1cor 11:34 ; Isaiah 1:11-15 ; Isaiah 66:3 ; Jeremiah 7:21-23 ; Psalms 50:16 ) therefore it is the duty of the christian church, according to the appointment of Christ and his apostles, to exclude such persons, by the keys of the kingdom of heaven, till they show amendment of life.
Q83: What are the keys of the kingdom of heaven?
The preaching of the holy gospel, and christian discipline, or excommunication out of the christian church; by these two, the kingdom of heaven is opened to believers, and shut against unbelievers.
Q84: How is the kingdom of heaven opened and shut by the preaching of the holy gospel?
Thus: when according to the command of Christ, it is declared and publicly testified to all and every believer, that, whenever they receive the promise of the gospel by a true faith, all their sins are really forgiven them of God, for the sake of Christ's merits; and on the contrary, when it is declared and testified to all unbelievers, and such as do not sincerely repent, that they stand exposed to the wrath of God, and eternal condemnation, so long as they are unconverted: ( matt 16:18 matt 16:19 ; Matthew 18:15-19 ; John 20:21-23 ) according to which testimony of the gospel, God will judge them, both in this, and in the life to come.
Q85: How is the kingdom of heaven shut and opened by christian discipline?
Thus: when according to the command of Christ, those, who under the name of christians, maintain doctrines, or practices inconsistent therewith, and will not, after having been often brotherly admonished, renounce their errors and wicked course of life, are complained of to the church, or to those, who are thereunto appointed by the church; and if they despise their admonition, are by them forbidden the use of the sacraments; whereby they are excluded from the christian church, and by God himself from the kingdom of Christ; and when they promise and show real amendment, are again received as members of Christ and his church. ( Matthew 18:15-18 ; 1cor 5:2-5 1cor 5:11 ; 2thess 3:14 2thess 3:15 ; 2 Corinthians 2:6-8 )
Q86: Since then we are delivered from our misery, merely of grace, through Christ, without any merit of ours, why must we still do good works?
Because Christ, having redeemed and delivered us by his blood, also renews us by his Holy Spirit, after his own image; that so we may testify, by the whole of our conduct, our gratitude to God for his blessings, ( Romans 6:13 ; rom 12:1 rom 12:2 ; 1pet 2:5 1pet 2:9 1pet 2:10 ; 1 Corinthians 6:20 ) and that he may be praised by us; ( Matthew 5:16 ; 1 Peter 2:12 ; 1pet 1:6 1pet 1:7 ) also, that every one may be assured in himself of his faith, ( 2 Peter 1:10 ; Matthew 7:17 ; gal 5:6 gal 5:22 gal 5:23 ) by the fruits thereof; and that, by our godly conversation others may be gained to Christ. ( 1pet 3:1 1pet 3:2 ; Romans 14:19 )
Q87: Cannot they then be saved, who, continuing in their wicked and ungrateful lives, are not converted to God?
By no means; for the holy scripture declares that no unchaste person, idolater, adulterer, thief, covetous man, drunkard, slanderer, robber, or any such like, shall inherit the kingdom of God. ( 1cor 6:9 1cor 6:10 ; Ephesians 5:5 Ephesians 5:6 ; 1 John 3:14 )
Q88: Of how many parts does the true conversion of man consist?
Of two parts; of the mortification of the old, and the quickening of the new man. ( rom 6:1 rom 6:4-6 ; Ephesians 4:22-24 ; Colossians 3:5-10 ; 1 Corinthians 5:7 ; 2 Corinthians 7:10 )
Q89: What is the mortification of the old man?
It is a sincere sorrow of heart, that we have provoked God by our sins; and more and more to hate and flee from them. ( Romans 8:13 ; Joel 2:13 ; Hosea 6:1 )
Q90: What is the quickening of the new man?
It is a sincere joy of heart in God, through Christ, ( Romans 5:1 ; Romans 14:17 ; Isaiah 57:15 ) and with love and delight to live according to the will of God in all good works. ( rom 6:10 rom 6:11 ; Galatians 2:20 )
Q91: But what are good works?
Only those which proceed from a true faith, ( Romans 14:23 ) are performed according to the law of God, ( Leviticus 18:4 ; 15:22 ; Ephesians 2:10 ) and to his glory; ( 1 Corinthians 10:31 ) and not such as are founded on our imaginations, or the institutions of men. ( Deuteronomy 12:32 ; ezek 20:18 ezek 20:19 ; Isaiah 29:13 ; Matthew 15:7-9 )
Q92: What is the law of God?
God spake all these words, Exodus 20:1-17 and Denteronomy 5:6-21, saying: I am the LORD thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.1st commandment: Thou shalt have no other gods before me.2nd commandment: Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me, and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.3rd commandment: Thou shalt not take the name of the LORD thy God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.4th commandment: Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is the sabbath of the LORD thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.5th commandment: Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.6th commandment: Thou shalt not kill.7th commandment: Thou shalt not commit adultery.8th commandment: Thou shalt not steal.9th commandment: Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.10th commandment: Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is thy neighbour's.
Q93: How are these commandments divided?
Into two tables; ( 34:28 ; Deuteronomy 4:13 ; deut 10:3 deut 10:4 ) the first of which teaches us how we must behave towards God; the second, what duties we owe to our neighbour. ( Matthew 22:37-40 )
Q94: What does God enjoin in the first commandment?
That I, as sincerely as I desire the salvation of my own soul, avoid and flee from all idolatry, ( 1 John 5:21 ; 1cor 6:9 1cor 6:10 ; 1cor 10:7 1cor 10:14 ) sorcery, soothsaying, superstition, ( Leviticus 19:31 ; Deuteronomy 18:9-12 ) invocation of saints, or any other creatures; ( Matthew 4:10 ; Revelation 19:10 ; rev 22:8 rev 22:9 ) and learn rightly to know the only true God; ( John 17:3 ) trust in him alone, ( Jeremiah 17:5 Jeremiah 17:7 ) with humility ( 1pet 5:5 1pet 5:6 ) and patience submit to him; ( Hebrews 10:36 ; Colossians 1:11 ; rom 5:3 rom 5:4 ; 1 Corinthians 10:10 ; Philippians 2:14 ) expect all good things from him only; ( Psalms 104:27-30 ; Isaiah 45:7 ; James 1:17 ) love, ( Deuteronomy 6:5 ; Matthew 22:37 ) fear, ( Deuteronomy 6:2 ; Psalms 111:10 ; Proverbs 1:7 ; Proverbs 9:10 ; Matthew 10:28 ) and glorify him with my whole heart; ( Matthew 4:10 ; deut 10:20 deut 10:21 ) so that I renounce and forsake all creatures, rather than commit even the least thing contrary to his will. ( matt 5:29 matt 5:30 ; Matthew 10:37 ; Acts 5:29 )
Q95: What is idolatry?
Idolatry is, instead of, or besides that one true God, who has manifested himself in his word, to contrive, or have any other object, in which men place their trust. ( Ephesians 5:5 ; 1 Chronicles 16:26 ; Philippians 3:19 ; Galatians 4:8 ; Ephesians 2:12 ; 1 John 2:23 ; 2 John 1:9 ; John 5:23 )
Q96: What does God require in the second commandment?
That we in no wise represent God by images, ( Deuteronomy 4:15-19 ; Isaiah 40:18-25 ; rom 1:23 rom 1:24 ; Acts 17:29 ) nor worship him in any other way than he has commanded in his word. ( 15:23 ; Deuteronomy 12:30-32 ; Matthew 15:9 )
Q97: Are images then not at all to be made?
God neither can, nor may be represented by any means: ( Isaiah 40:25 ) but as to creatures; though they may be represented, yet God forbids to make, or have any resemblance of them, either in order to worship them or to serve God by them. ( exod 23:24 exod 23:25 ; exod 34:13 exod 34:14 exod 34:17 ; Numbers 33:52 ; Deuteronomy 7:5 ; Deuteronomy 12:3 ; Deuteronomy 16:21 ; 2kin 18:3 2kin 18:4 )
Q98: But may not images be tolerated in the churches, as books to the laity?
No: for we must not pretend to be wiser than God, who will have his people taught, not by dumb images, ( Jeremiah 10:8 ; Habakkuk 2:18 Habakkuk 2:19 ) but by the lively preaching of his word. ( rom 10:14 rom 10:15 rom 10:17 ; 2 Peter 1:19 ; 2tim 3:16 2tim 3:17 )
Q99: What is required in the third commandment?
That we, not only by cursing ( Leviticus 24:11-16 ) or perjury, ( Leviticus 19:12 ) but also by rash swearing, ( Matthew 5:37 ; James 5:12 ) must not profane or abuse the name of God; nor by silence or connivance be partakers of these horrible sins in others; ( Leviticus 5:1 ; Proverbs 29:24 ) and, briefly, that we use the holy name of God no otherwise than with fear and reverence; ( Jeremiah 4:2 ; Isaiah 45:23 ) so that he may be rightly confessed ( rom 10:9 rom 10:10 ; Matthew 10:32 ) and worshipped by us, ( Psalms 50:15 ; 1 Timothy 2:8 ) and be glorified in all our words and works. ( Romans 2:24 ; 1 Timothy 6:1 ; Colossians 3:16 Colossians 3:17 )
Q100: Is then the profaning of God's name, by swearing and cursing, so heinous a sin, that his wrath is kindled against those who do not endeavour, as much as in them lies, to prevent and forbid such cursing and swearing?
It undoubtedly is, ( Proverbs 29:24 ; Leviticus 5:1 ) for there is no sin greater or more provoking to God, than the profaning of his name; and therefore he has commanded this sin to be punished with death. ( lev 24:15 lev 24:16 )
Q101: May we then swear religiously by the name of God?
Yes: either when the magistrates demand it of the subjects; or when necessity requires us thereby to confirm a fidelity and truth to the glory of God, and the safety of our neighbour: for such an oath is founded on God's word, ( Deuteronomy 6:13 ; Deuteronomy 10:20 ; Isaiah 48:1 ; Hebrews 6:16 ) and therefore was justly used by the saints, both in the Old and New Testament. ( Genesis 21:24 ; gen 31:53 gen 31:54 ; Joshua 9:15 Joshua 9:19 ; 24:22 ; 3:35 ; 1:28-30 ; Romans 1:9 ; 2 Corinthians 1:23 )
Q102: May we also swear by saints or any other creatures?
No; for a lawful oath is calling upon God, as the only one who knows the heart, that he will bear witness to the truth, and punish me if I swear falsely; ( 2 Corinthians 1:23 ; Romans 9:1 ) which honour is due to no creature. ( Matthew 5:34-36 ; James 5:12 )
Q103: What does God require in the fourth commandment?
First, that the ministry of the gospel and the schools be maintained; ( Titus 1:5 ; 2tim 3:14 2tim 3:15 ; 1 Timothy 5:17 ; 1cor 9:11 1cor 9:13 1cor 9:14 ; 2 Timothy 2:2 ) and that I, especially on the sabbath, that is, on the day of rest, diligently frequent the church of God, ( Psalms 40:10 Psalms 40:11 ; Psalms 68:27 ; acts 2:42 acts 2:46 ) to hear his word, ( 1tim 4:13 1tim 4:19 ; 1cor 14:29 1cor 14:31 ) to use the sacraments, ( 1 Corinthians 11:33 ) publicly to call upon the Lord, ( 1tim 2:1-3 1tim 2:8-11 ; 1 Corinthians 14:16 ) and contribute to the relief of the poor. ( 1 Corinthians 16:2 ) Secondly, that all the days of my life I cease from my evil works, and yield myself to the Lord, to work by his Holy Spirit in me: and thus begin in this life the eternal sabbath. ( Isaiah 66:23 )
Q104: What does God require in the fifth commandment?
That I show all honour, love and fidelity, to my father and mother, and all in authority over me, and submit myself to their good instruction and correction, with due obedience; ( Ephesians 5:22 ; Ephesians 6:1-5 ; Colossians 3:18 Colossians 3:20-24 ; Proverbs 1:8 ; Proverbs 4:1 ; Proverbs 15:20 ; Proverbs 20:20 ; 21:17 ; Romans 13:1-7 ) and also patiently bear with their weaknesses and infirmities, ( Proverbs 23:22 ; gen 9:24 gen 9:25 ; 1 Peter 2:18 ) since it pleases God to govern us by their hand. ( Ephesians 6:4 Ephesians 6:9 ; Colossians 3:19-21 ; rom 13:2 rom 13:3 ; Matthew 22:21 )
Q105: What does God require in the sixth commandment?
That neither in thoughts, nor words, nor gestures, much less in deeds, I dishonour, hate, wound, or kill my neighbour, by myself or by another: ( matt 5:21 matt 5:22 ; Matthew 26:52 ; Genesis 9:6 ) but that I lay aside all desire of revenge: ( Ephesians 4:26 ; Romans 12:19 ; Matthew 5:25 ; Matthew 18:35 ) also, that I hurt not myself, nor wilfully expose myself to any danger. ( Romans 13:14 ; Colossians 2:23 ; Matthew 4:7 ) Wherefore also the magistrate is armed with the sword, to prevent murder. ( Genesis 9:6 ; 21:14 ; Matthew 26:52 ; Romans 13:4 )
Q106: But this commandment seems only to speak of murder?
In forbidding murder, God teaches us, that he abhors the causes thereof, such as envy, ( Proverbs 14:30 ; Romans 1:29 ) hatred, ( 1john 2:9 1john 2:11 ) anger, ( James 1:20 ; gal 5:19 gal 5:21 ) and desire of revenge; and that he accounts all these as murder. ( 1 John 3:15 )
Q107: But is it enough that we do not kill any man in the manner mentioned above?
No: for when God forbids envy, hatred, and anger, he commands us to love our neighbour as ourselves; ( Matthew 7:12 ; Matthew 22:39 ; Romans 12:10 ) to show patience, peace, meekness, mercy, and all kindness, towards him, ( Ephesians 4:2 ; gal 6:1 gal 6:2 ; matt 5:5 matt 5:7 matt 5:9 ; Romans 12:18 ; Luke 6:36 ; 1 Peter 3:8 ; Colossians 3:12 ; rom 12:10 rom 12:15 ) and prevent his hurt as much as in us lies; ( 23:5 ) and that we do good, even to our enemies. ( matt 5:44 matt 5:45 ; rom 12:20 rom 12:21 )
Q108: What does the seventh commandment teach us?
That all uncleanness is accursed of God: ( lev 18:27 lev 18:28 ) and that therefore we must with all our hearts detest the same, ( Jude 1:23 ) and live chastely and temperately, ( 1 Thessalonians 4:3-5 ) whether in holy wedlock, or in single life. ( Hebrews 13:4 ; 1cor 7:7-9 1cor 7:27 )
Q109: Does God forbid in this commandment, only adultery, and such like gross sins?
Since both our body and soul are temples of the holy Ghost, he commands us to preserve them pure and holy: therefore he forbids all unchaste actions, gestures, words, ( Ephesians 5:3 Ephesians 5:4 ; 1 Corinthians 6:18-20 ) thoughts, desires, ( matt 5:27 matt 5:28 ) and whatever can entice men thereto. ( Ephesians 5:18 ; 1 Corinthians 15:33 )
Q110: What does God forbid in the eighth commandment?
God forbids not only those thefts, ( 1 Corinthians 6:10 ) and robberies, ( 1 Corinthians 5:10 ; Isaiah 33:1 ) which are punishable by the magistrate; but he comprehends under the name of theft all wicked tricks and devices, whereby we design to appropriate to ourselves the goods which belong to our neighbour: ( Luke 3:14 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:6 ) whether it be by force, or under the appearance of right, as by unjust weights, ells, measures, fraudulent merchandise, ( Proverbs 11:1 ; Proverbs 16:11 ; 45:9-12 ; Deuteronomy 25:13-16 ) false coins, usury, ( Psalms 15:5 ; Luke 6:35 ) or by any other way forbidden by God; as also all covetousness, ( 1 Corinthians 6:10 ) all abuse and waste of his gifts. ( prov 23:20 prov 23:21 ; Proverbs 21:20 )
Q111: But what does God require in this commandment?
That I promote the advantage of my neighbour in every instance I can or may; and deal with him as I desire to be dealt with by others: ( Matthew 7:12 ) further also that I faithfully labour, so that I may be able to relieve the needy. ( Ephesians 4:28 )
Q112: What is required in the ninth commandment?
That I bear false witness against no man, ( prov 19:5 prov 19:9 ; Proverbs 21:28 ) nor falsify any man's words; ( Psalms 15:3 ; Psalms 50:19 Psalms 50:20 ) that I be no backbiter, nor slanderer; ( rom 1:29 rom 1:30 ) that I do not judge, nor join in condemning any man rashly, or unheard; ( matt 7:1 matt 7:2 ; Luke 6:37 ) but that I avoid all sorts of lies and deceit, as the proper works of the devil, ( John 8:44 ) unless I would bring down upon me the heavy wrath of God; ( Proverbs 12:22 ; Proverbs 13:5 ) likewise, that in judgment and all other dealings I love the truth, speak it uprightly and confess it; ( 1 Corinthians 13:6 ; Ephesians 4:25 ) also that I defend and promote, as much as I am able, the horror and good character of my neighbour. ( 1 Peter 4:8 )
Q113: What does the tenth commandment require of us?
That even the smallest inclination or thought, contrary to any of God's commandments, never rise in our hearts; but that at all times we hate all sin with our whole heart, and delight in all righteousness. ( Romans 7:7 )
Q114: But can those who are converted to God perfectly keep these commandments?
No: but even the holiest men, while in this life, have only a small beginning of this obedience; ( 1 John 1:8-10 ; rom 7:14 rom 7:15 ; Ecclesiastes 7:20 ; 1 Corinthians 13:9 ) yet so, that with a sincere resolution they begin to live, not only according to some, but all the commandments of God. ( Romans 7:22 ; Psalms 1:2 ; James 2:10 )
Q115: Why will God then have the ten commandments so strictly preached, since no man in this life can keep them?
First, that all our lifetime we may learn more and more to know ( Romans 3:20 ; 1 John 1:9 ; Psalms 32:5 ) our sinful nature, and thus become the more earnest in seeking the remission of sin, and righteousness in Christ; ( Matthew 5:6 ; rom 7:24 rom 7:25 ) likewise, that we constantly endeavour and pray to God for the grace of the Holy Spirit, that we may become more and more conformable to the image of God, till we arrive at the perfection proposed to us, in a life to come. ( 1 Corinthians 9:24 ; Philippians 3:11-14 )
Q116: Why is prayer necessary for christians?
Because it is the chief part of thankfulness which God requires of us: ( Psalms 50:14 Psalms 50:15 ) and also, because God will give his grace and Holy Spirit to those only, who with sincere desires continually ask them of him, and are thankful for them. ( matt 7:7 matt 7:8 ; luke 11:9 luke 11:10 luke 11:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:17 )
Q117: What are the requisites of that prayer, which is acceptable to God, and which he will hear?
First, that we from the heart pray ( John 4:24 ; Psalms 145:18 ) to the one true God only, who has manifested himself in his word, ( Revelation 19:10 ; John 4:22-24 ) for all things, he has commanded us to ask of him; ( Romans 8:26 ; 1 John 5:14 ; James 1:5 ) secondly, that we rightly and thoroughly know our need and misery, ( 2 Chronicles 20:12 ) that so we may deeply humble ourselves in the presence of his divine majesty; ( Psalms 2:11 ; Psalms 34:19 ; Isaiah 66:2 ) thirdly, that we be fully persuaded that he, notwithstanding that we are unworthy of it, will, for the sake of Christ our Lord, certainly hear our prayer, ( Romans 10:14 ; James 1:6 ) as he has promised us in his word. ( john 14:13 john 14:14 ; John 16:23 ; dan 9:17 dan 9:18 ; Matthew 7:8 ; Psalms 27:8 )
Q119: What are the words of that prayer?
Our Father which art in heaven,1Hallowed be thy name.2Thy kingdom come.3Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven.4 Give us this day our daily bread.5 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.6 And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever.Amen.
Q120: Why has Christ commanded us to address God thus: "Our Father"?
That immediately, in the very beginning of our prayer, he might excite in us a childlike reverence for, and confidence in God, which are the foundation of our prayer: namely, that God is become our Father in Christ, and will much less deny us what we ask of him in true faith, than our parents will refuse us earthly things. ( Matthew 7:9-11 ; Luke 11:11-13 )
Q121: Why is it here added, "Which art in heaven"?
Lest we should form any earthly conceptions of God's heavenly majesty, ( Jeremiah 23:23 Jeremiah 23:24 ; acts 17:24 acts 17:25 acts 17:27 ) and that we may expect from his almighty power all things necessary for soul and body. ( Romans 10:12 )
Q122: Which is the first petition?
"Hallowed be thy name"; that is, grant us, first, rightly to know thee, ( John 17:3 ; Jeremiah 9:24 ; Jeremiah 31:33 Jeremiah 31:34 ; Matthew 16:17 ; James 1:5 ; Psalms 119:105 ) and to sanctify, glorify and praise thee, ( Psalms 119:137 ; luke 1:46 luke 1:47 luke 1:68 luke 1:69 ; Romans 11:33-36 ) in all thy works, in which thy power, wisdom, goodness, justice, mercy and truth, are clearly displayed; and further also, that we may so order and direct our whole lives, our thoughts, words and actions, that thy name may never be blasphemed, but rather honoured and praised on our account. ( Psalms 71:8 ; Psalms 115:1 )
Q123: Which is the second petition?
"Thy kingdom come"; that is, rule us so by thy word and Spirit, that we may submit ourselves more and more to thee; ( Matthew 6:33 ; Psalms 119:5 ; Psalms 143:10 ) preserve and increase thy church; ( Psalms 51:18 ; Psalms 122:6-9 ) destroy the works of the devil, and all violence which would exalt itself against thee; and also all wicked counsels devised against thy holy word; ( 1 John 3:8 ; Romans 16:20 ) till the full perfection of thy kingdom take place, ( rev 22:17 rev 22:20 ; rom 8:22 rom 8:23 ) wherein thou shalt be all in all. ( 1 Corinthians 15:28 )
Q124: Which is the third petition?
"Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven"; that is, grant that we and all men may renounce our own will, ( Matthew 16:24 ; Titus 2:11 Titus 2:12 ) and without murmuring obey thy will, which is only good; ( Luke 22:42 ; Ephesians 5:10 ; Romans 12:2 ) that every one may attend to, and perform the duties of his station and calling, ( 1 Corinthians 7:24 ) as willingly and faithfully as the angels do in heaven. ( Psalms 103:20 Psalms 103:21 )
Q125: Which is the fourth petition?
"Give us this day our daily bread"; that is, be pleased to provide us with all things necessary for the body, ( Psalms 104:27 Psalms 104:28 ; Psalms 145:15 Psalms 145:16 ; matt 6:25 matt 6:26 ) that we may thereby acknowledge thee to be the only fountain of all good, ( James 1:17 ; Acts 14:17 ; acts 17:27 acts 17:28 ) and that neither our care nor industry, nor even thy gifts, can profit us without thy blessing; ( 1 Corinthians 15:58 ; Deuteronomy 8:3 ; Psalms 37:3-5 Psalms 37:16 ; Psalms 127:1 Psalms 127:2 ) and therefore that we may withdraw our trust from all creatures, and place it alone in thee. ( Psalms 55:23 ; Psalms 62:11 ; Psalms 146:3 ; Jeremiah 17:5 Jeremiah 17:7 )
Q126: Which is the fifth petition?
"And forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors"; that is, be pleased for the sake of Christ's blood, not to impute to us poor sinners, our transgressions, nor that depravity, which always cleaves to us; ( Psalms 51:1-7 ; Psalms 143:2 ; 1john 2:1 1john 2:2 ; Romans 8:1 ) even as we feel this evidence of thy grace in us, that it is our firm resolution from the heart to forgive our neighbour. ( matt 6:14 matt 6:15 )
Q127: Which is the sixth petition?
"And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil"; that is, since we are so weak in ourselves, that we cannot stand a moment; ( John 15:5 ; Psalms 103:14 ) and besides this, since our mortal enemies, the devil, ( 1 Peter 5:8 ; Ephesians 6:12 ) the world, ( John 15:19 ) and our own flesh, ( Romans 7:23 ; Galatians 5:17 ) cease not to assault us, do thou therefore preserve and strengthen us by the power of thy Holy Spirit, that we may not be overcome in this spiritual warfare, ( Matthew 26:41 ; Mark 13:33 ) but constantly and strenuously may resist our foes, till at last we obtain a complete victory. ( 1 Thessalonians 3:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:23 )
Q128: How dost thou conclude thy prayer?
"For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever"; that is, all these we ask of thee, because thou, being our King and almighty, art willing and able to give us all good; ( rom 10:11 rom 10:12 ; 2 Peter 2:9 ) and all this we pray for, that thereby not we, but thy holy name, may be glorified for ever. ( John 14:13 ; Jeremiah 33:8 Jeremiah 33:9 ; Psalms 115:1 )
Q129: What does the word "Amen" signify?
"Amen" signifies, it shall truly and certainly be: for my prayer is more assuredly heard of God, than I feel in my heart that I desire these things of him. ( 2 Corinthians 1:20 ; 2 Timothy 2:13 )