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A Summary of the Life, Writings, and Character Of the late Reverend and Learned John Gill, D.D.

Preface

DR John Gill was born at Kettering, in Northamptonshire, Nov. 23. 0. S. 1697. his parents were Edward Gill and Elizabeth his wife, whose maiden name was Walker. They were religious and pious persons; whose circumstances did not reach affluence, but were above contempt. His father was a Deacon of the Baptist church at Kettering ; and was eminent for his grace, piety, and holy conversation. He first became a member of a congregation in the same place, consisting of Prestyterians, Independents and Baptists : in which congregation, besides the Pastor of it, there was a teaching Elder of the Baptist denomination, Mr William IVallis, who was the administrator of Baptism by immersion, to such adult persons as desired it. For some time this mixed congregation continued in peace and harmony: but, at length, the Baptists were rendered uneasy and uncomfortable in their communion, through the opposition made to them by some particular persons. This obliged them to separate, together with their teacher, Mr IVallis. They soon formed themselves into a church-state, and chose Mr IVallis for their Pastor : which was the rife and foundation of the Baptist church at Kettering.

About the time of these troubles, Mr Edward Gill, who was one of those

that had separated, entered into the mairiage-state : and as those dissensions

pressed him much, and he was often revolving within himself the condition

and circumstances of this little interest and new church-state, lately set up,

Vol, I. a which which had but a small beginning; and what must be the consequence of things; he had strong impressions upon his mind, that the child, his wife now became pregnant with, would be a son, and prove of eminent service in the Baptist interest. He was even strongly persuaded, that this child would be a Minister of the word: and he always retained a firm belief of it, when things seemed to be unpromising. He had other impulses, relative to his son, and to other persons and things i which had their exact accomplishment: and this must be acknowledged by all who knew him, that he was not a man of a fanciful and melancholy disposition, nor given to enthusiasm.

The morning this first-born son of his was brought into the world, one Chambers, a Woodman, came to his house with a load of faggots for fuel: and, as he was unloading his faggots, Mr Gill came out of his house to him, and, with a great deal of joy, told him, that he had a son born to him that morning. At that very moment, as the Woodman affirmed, a stranger passed by whom he never saw before, nor since, who added, " Yes, and be will be a Scholar too, " and all the world cannot hinder it." This the Woodman, who was reckoned a man of sobriety, honesty, and veracity, constantly and confidently affirmed at different times, without variation : and even years after when inquired of concerning it; nor could he have any sinister end to avail himself of, in contriving such a story, and persisting in it. However, Mr Gill's son, as soon as he was capable of instruction, discovered a very great aptitude for learning, and imbibed it in as fast as it could be given : so that he was quickly out of the reach, and in no need of a common teacher of children. He was therefore sent to the grammar school, very early ; which he attended with uncommon eagerness and diligence : insomuch that he, soon, not only transcended his co-ævals, but distanced even greatly his seniors. Here he continued until he was about elevenyears of age : during which time, notwithstanding the tedious manner in which grammatical knowledge was then conveyed, and the drudgery boys were put to in learning so many unnecessary rules •, he, besides going through the common- * school-books, read several of the chief Latin classics, and made a considerable proficiency in the Greek : so that he began to be talked of as a youth of Learning ; and was known by several of the neighbouring Clergy, by whom he was sometimes examined at a Bookseller's shop (which he constantly frequented on market-days, when only it was opened); to which he so regularly repaired, for the fake of consulting different authors, that it became an usual asseveration with the common people in the town, " such a thing is as sure as John Gill is in " the Bookseller's shop \"

He

1 As the fame studious disposition attended him through life, so did nearly the same remark concerning him. Nothing was more frequent, in the mouths of those who knew him, than to use this mode of affirmation, «« As surely as Dr G i Ll is in his study."

He left the grammar school rather early in life. The occasion was this: the school-master infilled, that the children of Dissenting parents, as well as others, should go with him to church, on week-days, at the hours of prayer: upon which the children of Dissenters were taken away from the school, and he among the rest. Those Dissenters, who were in affluent circumstances, sent their children to distant parts for their further education : but this was not the cafe with his parents. This was a very discouraging circumstance. Several ways and means were thought of by his friends .» but all proved fruitless. Some eftorts were made by ministers, both of other denominations and of his own, to gee him upon one or other of the funds in London, and that he might be sent to one of their seminaries of learning. To this end specimens of his progress in literature were sent up to town : but the answer returned by way of objection was, that he was too young ; and, should he continue, as it might be supposed he would, to make such rapid advances in his studies, he would go through the common circle of learning before he could be capable of taking care of himself, or of being employed in any public service.

If any credit can be given to the story of the Woodman, concerning what the stranger said on the morning of his birth, which seemed to suppose that some difficulties and obstructions would be thrown in the way of his becoming a scholar, they now began to appear. And yer, notwithstanding all this, such was his desire of learning, that he not only retained what knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages he had acquired, but he improved himself in both, by constantly reading all such books in those languages, as he could obtain. In process of time he studied Logic, Rhetoric, Moral and Natural Philosophy. He likewise, Suo Marie, learned the Hebrew language, without any living assistance, by the help of Buxtcss Grammar and Lexicon. With only these, he surmounted the chief difficulties of that language : and could soon read the Hebrew Bible with great ease and pleasure. In this language he always took peculiar delight. He read books, in various branches of literature, in the Latin tongue, to improve his mind with whatsoever was useful: and particularly Systems of Divinity. For some few years his time was daily divided : part of it was employed in his father's business; and the other part of it in close studying. And thus he went on, till he had nearly attained to the nineteenth year of his age.

It is now time to look back, and take some notice of the religious turn of his mind, and of his inquiries after divine and spiritual things. He had flight convictions of sin, and occasional thoughts of a future state, from his childhood. Sometimes he was terrified with the fear of death, hell and eternity; and strangely elated with thinking on the joys of heaven, the glories of another world, and the happiness of saints made perfect above. But these impressions

a 2 were, were, for some time, both superficial and transitory. When he was about twelve years of age, the workings of his mind became more serious, fettled and effectual: and especially after hearing a Sermon of Mr William Wallis's, on Gen. iii. 9. And the Lord God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? For a while it was, as it were, continually ringing in his ears, " Man, " where art thou ? What a wretched state and condition art thou in ? How " miserable wilt thou be, living and dying, in an unconverted state! " Hence he used to call Mr Wallis, if any man, his spiritual father, who died soon after. And now he began clearly to see the depravity of his nature ; the exceeding sinfulness of sin i his need of Christ, and salvation by him •, and of a better righteousness than his own ; even the righteousness of Christ, to be received by faith : and in a short time was favoured with a comfortable hope and faith of interest in Him, from several exceeding great and precious promises, powerfully applied to his foul. It was, moreover, his happy lot, to have his mind early irradiated with the light and knowledge of evangelic truths, by means of the ministry of several gospel-preachers in those parts of the country, whom ac times he had the opportunity of hearing : and these truths, coming to him with power, failed not of freeing him from the bondage of the Law, and of filling him v/'ithjoy and peace in believing; yet though he early arrived to satisfaction in his mind about his eternal state, he did not make a public profession of religion until he was almost nineteen years of age; partly by reason of his youth for some time, and the solemnity of a profession ; and chiefly in the latter pare of this period of his life, because he perceived the eye of the church was upon him to call him forth to the ministry, as soon as they conveniently could, should he become a member of it; their then present pastor being greatly involved in worldly business, and much needed assistance.

Nov. 1, 1716, he made a public profession of his faith in Christ, by declaring to the church with which he stood connected, the dealings of God with his sou', to their satisfaction: and was the fame day baptized by their pastor, Mr Thomas Wallis,. who succeeded his father Mr William Wallis in that office. The ordinance of Baptism was administered to him by immersion, in a river, in the sight of many spectators: and the following Hymn, composed by himself, was fung at the fame time.

Was Christ baptiz'd to sanctify

This ordinance he gave ?

And did his sacred body lie

Within the liquid grave ?

Did Did Jesus condescend so low

To leave us an example ?
And shan'c we by this pattern go;

This heavenly rule so ample ?

What rich and what amazing grace!

What love beyond degree !
That we the heavenly road should trace,

And should baptized be.

That we should follow Christ: the Lamb,

In owning his commands ;
For what we do, He did the fame,

Tho' done with purer hands.

And does this offer to my faith,

How Christ for me did die;
And how He in the grave was laid,

And rose to justify ?

Then how should this engage my heart

To live to Christ that dy'd ;
And with my cursed fins to part,

Which piere'd his precious side ?

The Lord's-day following, Nov. 4}*, he was received a member into the church, and partook of the Lord's-sopper : In the evening of that day, at a meeting of prayer in a private house, of the members and others, he read the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah, as suitable to the service of the day, and expounded some passages of it: and, at the close of the meeting, some of the brethren addressed him to this purpose, " Friend, we take this as a beginning of the " exercise of your ministerial gift, which we are persuaded the Lord has bestowed " upon you." And accordingly, the next Lord's-day, in the evening, at the fame place, he delivered a Sermon on 1 Cor. ii. 2. For I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified. For a few days he continued preaching in this private manner : the church soon called him to exercise his ministerial gift in public, and sent him forth as a minister of the word.

Quickly after this, at the motion of some of his friends at London, who had seen and conversed with him in the country, he removed to Higham-Ferrers, about six or seven computed miles from Kettering. His view, and what inclined him to attend to this motion, was to carry on his studies under Mr John Davii, with whom he was to board: a gentleman of learning, and who now taught,, taught in that place some branches of literature; being lately come from Wales, and fettled pastor of a new church just planted at Higham. In this view, however, young Mr Gill was disappointed; but the design of Mr Gill's friends in London in this removal of him, was, chiefly to be assisting in this new church, and to the young converts in it, and to preach occasionally in the adjacent villages. Here he continued the year following : and in this time, and at that place, he contracted acquaintance with a young Gentlewoman of great piety and good fense, whose name was Elizabeth Negus ; a member of the new gathered church, and whom he married in 1718. The Doctor was always of opinion, that his marriage with this excellent person, was the principal thing for which God in his providence sent him to that place : and he ever considered his marriage to her, as one of the capital blessings of his life. For she proved affectionate, discreet, and careful: and, by her unremitting prudence, took off from his'hands all domestic av6cations, so that he could, with more leisure, and greater ease of mind, pursue his studies, and devote himself to his ministerial service. This wife of his youth lived with him unto the year iy6^.b, and by her he had many children, all of whom died in their infancy, except three: one of which, whose name was Elizabeth (a most lovely and desirable child for person, sense, and grace) died May 30, 1738. when (he had entered into the thirteenth year of her age, her Funeral Sermon was preached by her father from 1 The/s. iv. 13, 14. and was printed, with an account of some of her choice experiences1. The other two are still living : the one, a son, whose name is John, a Goldsmith, who lived in Gracechurch-Jlreet, London; since retired from business. The other, a daughter, whose name is Mary, married to Mr George Keith, a Bookseller in the same street. Both these children have been a great happiness to their parents •, and they have always had reason to be thankful to God for their family comfort, peace, and harmony.

But to return : Mr Gill, during his abode at Higham-Ferrers, very frequently preached to the church atKeltering; which, as before observed, is but six or seven miles distant The circumstances of the pastor there requiring assistance, Mtgill, quickly after his marriage, wholly removed thither: where his ministry, from the beginning, had been blessed, not only to the comfort, but to the conversion of many : some of which seals of his ministry are yet living. But his continuance here was not long; for, in the beginning of the year 1719, the church of Christ at Horjly down, Southwark, near London, being deprived of their pastor by the death of Mr Benjamin Stinton, (son in law to the famous Mr Benjamin Keach, and his successor in his office, as pastor of that church) some of the

members, members, hearing of Mr Gill, desired a friend of his to write to him, and invite him to give them a visit, and preach to them; which he did, in the months of April and May, the same year; and then returned into the country.

* She died Oct. io, 1764, aged sixty-seven years and five months, having been married to the Doctor forty-six years, three calendar months and nineteen days. See his Sermon on her death, sage 556. « See page 391.

About two months after, the church at Horfly-down wrote to him, requesting his return to them in the month of August; which he complied with, and continued preaching to them, till about Michaelmas: when they made choice of him to be their pastor, and celled him, young as he was, to the exercise of that office; which, after taking some time for consideration, he accepted of. And now he met with much trouble and great opposition from many ; partiy on account of his youth (he not being quite twenty-two years of age), and chiefly because of his evangelical way of preaching. But God was with him, and blessed his ministry to the conversion of many souls; so that large additions were made to the church, year after year, for a considerable time.

In 1723. when he was between twenty-five and twenty-six years of age, it was the will of God to visit him with an Uetlic fever, anfj other disorders of body ; which greatly wasted and consumed him, and threatened his life: but it pleased God to bless the means made use of, and to restore him to health again ; his time not being come, and he having more work to do for God in his church, and for the interest of religion, as the following account will fhew.

In 1724. when he was now twenty-six years of age, he began his Exposition of the Book of Solomon's Song; which was delivered, on Lord's-day mornings, to the church under his care, in one hundred and twenty-two Sermons, until the whole was finished : of which more hereafter. In this year, he printed a Sermon on the death of Mr John Smith, a Deacon of his church, from Rom. v. 20,21. which was the first thing printed by him. And another Sermon, in the following year, intitled, The Urim and Thummim found with Christ, from Deut. xxxiii. 8.

In 1726. a pamphlet was published called, " The manner of baptizing with "water, cleared up from the word of God, and right reason, &c." written dialoguewise : and it after appeared to have been written by Mr Mathias Maurice, an Independent minister, at Rowel, in Northamptonshire. The Baptists in thole parts, and especially at Kettering, which was but two computed miles, though long ones, from Rowel, thought themselves struck at, and their interest affected by this pamphlet ; and therefore sent it up to Mr Gill at London, and desired him to write an answer to it. He accordingly undertook it; and soon published his answer, called, " The antient mode of baptism by immersion, &c." to which Mr Maurice replied, in a pamphlet published in 1727. and which was answered, the same year, by Mr Gill, in a tract, called, " A Defence of the antient u mode, &c. " One Cogan, an Apothecary, and member of Mr Maurice's church, wrote some remarks on Mr Gill's rejoinder, in a most virulent and

defamatory defamatory manner, and which carried its own confutation with it. Cogan himself, it seems, was afterwards ashamed of it, and repented of his having written it. Mr Maurice sent several of his pamphlets into North America ; and the Baptists there, hearing of Mr Gill's answer to them, wrote for some of them : and accordingly the remainder of the impression were sent over, at the expence of the Baptist-fund ; which is one reason of these tracts being so rarely to be met with. On account of this controversy, Mr G i Ll received, from Tilbury-fort in Essex, a very spirited Letter, without a name, animating him to continue in it, and not be intimidated by his puny adversary -, concluding with these lines :

In the year 1727. Mr Gill finished his Exposition of the Song of Solomon: when the church, as well as many others of his hearers, to whom he had delivered it, most earnestly pressed him to make it public : with this he, at length, complied; though with great reluctance. What, however, chiefly induced him to compliance, was, a desire of contributing what he could, to vindicate the authority and credit of this part of the sacred writings ; which has not only been ridiculed by Deists, but called in question by some who have pretended to be friends to divine revelation.

The year before he entered upon this Exposition, a pamphlet was published by Mr Whiston, called, " A supplement to Mr Whiston'j late Essay towards restoring the true text of the Old Testament," 8°. 1723. in which, he endeavours to discredit the authority of the book of Solomon's Song, and to prove it to be a spurious book, and not fit to stand in the canon of scripture. His objections and arguments against the authority of it, are answered by Mr Gill, in his Introduction to this Exposition ; or rather in his Exposition of the first verse of the book, which contains the title of it. Whether Mr IVbiston ever saw this work, is not certain ; it seems as if he had not, by a remarkable and very strange passage in the Memoirs of his own life and writings, publijked by himself; Part II. p. 575, which shows his obstinate and inveterate opposition to this sacred book, to the last : his words are these. " About August this year (17+8) «* I was informed of one Dr Gill, a particular or Calvinist Baptist, of whose

» skill *« skill in the Oriental languages I had heard a great character: so I had a mind " to hear him preach : but being informed that he had written a folio book on " the Canticles, I declined to go to hear him." A very wise reason indeed ! The first edition of Mr Gill's Exposition of the Song of Solomon was published in 1728. with a translation ofiheCbaldee paraphrase, or Targum of that book, and with notes upon that. In 1751 a new edition of it was published, in quarto, more correct, and with some additions. His worthy, pious, learned, and ingenious friend, the Rev. Mr James Hervey (in his Theron and Afpasio, vol. III. p. 145. edit. 5.) was pleased to give this high encomium of it; " it has " such a copious vein of sanctified invention running through it, and is inter" spersed with such a variety of delicate and brilliant images, as cannot but " highly entertain a curious mind; which presents us also, with such rich and " charming displays of the glory of Christ's person, the freeness of his grace to " sinners, and the tenderness of his love to the church, as cannot but administer " the most exquisite delight to the believing soul. — Considered in both these " views, I think the work resembles the paradisaical garden described by " Milton, in which,

" Blcjfoms and fruits at once of golden hue
" Appear'd, with gay enamel'd colours mix'd."

This Exposition, when first published, served very much to make Mr Gill known, and to recommend him to the esteem of spiritual persons, and the true lovers of Jesus Christ; and, perhaps, no work he ever published has been more useful to private christians and families, than this has been. Dr Owen, " on the ** person of Christ," chap. XII. says, " Blessed is he who understands the say" ings of that book (the Canticles) and hath the experience of them in his heart." A third edition of the Exposition was published 1767, with many additions.

In the year 1728, he also published a treatise concerning the prophecies of the Old 'Testament respecting the Messiah. The occasion of which was this : in 1724, a book was published, called, A discourse of the grounds of the Christian Religion, lie. well known to be written by Anthony Collins Esq-, a Deistical writer. Many answers were written to one part or other of this book : to which the author replied, in another book, called, The scheme ofliteral Prophecy considered, &c. published in 1727, which was chiefly pointed at Dr Edward Chandler, Bishop of Durham, who had written against the former; it was to this latter book, chiefly, Mr Gill made answer, and to which he was led by the following incident: A certain Gentleman asserted in conversation, that no Calvinist could write in this controversy to any advantage. What his reason was, for so saying, or whether any was assigned by him, is not remembered. Some of Mr Gill's friends being present, thought of Him; and took an opportunity of moving it to him, "vol. I. b and and importuned him to engage in this controversy. Upon which he preached a set of sermons on the prophecies relating to the Messiah, in a regular order, suited to the history of the life of Jesus ; and then made extracts out of them, which he published under the title of " The Prophecies of the Old Testament, " respecting the Messiah, considered and proved to be literally fulfilled in Jesus " in answer to the above book. This work of his met with the approbation of some men of learning and judgment, and even of the very person above mentioned, whose assertion was the occasion of it.

A list and catalogue of the various pieces published during this controversy, was collected by that most indefatigable Inquirer after books, the learned Fabritius, of Hamburg, in his SalutarisLux Evangelii, &c. c. 9. p. 173, &c. Hamburg, 1731.

The ministry of Mr Gill being acceptable not only to his own people, but likewise to many in other churches, and of other denominations; some gentlemen moved among themselves to set up a lecture on some day in the week, that they might have the opportunity of hearing him. Accordingly, several met together, and forming themselves into a society, agreed to have a lecture on JVednefday-ev enings, and set on foot a subscription to support it. Upon their invitation, Mr Gill undertook that lectureship, and continued in it with great constancy, applause, and usefulness. It was set up in the year 1729, and he continued preaching it (very rarely missing) until 1756, near twenty seven years: when he gave it up, by reason of age and multiplicity of work upon his hands; and preached a farewel sermon to the Society, on Affs xxv'i. 22, 23. which was published that year. This lecture was productive of many of his printed works; not only of single annual sermons on various subjects, but of whole treatises : as on the Trinity, and Justification, the cause of God and Truth, and of several of his Commentaries on some of the books, both of the Old and of the New Testament, of all which more hereafter.

In 1730, a sett of gentlemen, chiefly of the Independent denomination, thought fit to set up a temporary lecture for the winter and spring seasons following; and chose nine ministers to preach in it, on some of the most important doctrines of Christianity : each having his subject allotted to him. The ministers were, Mr Robert Bragge, Mr Thomas Bradbury, Mr John Hurrion, Mr Thomas Hall,. Mr Peter Goodwin, Mr John Sladen, Mr Abraham Taylor, Mr Samuel Wilson, and Mr John Gill. These accepted of the invitation given them, and preached two sermons each, on the subject respectively assigned them : and when they had finished the course of them, the gentlemen desired the sermons might be printed ; which was accordingly done, in two volumes Zvo. in 1732. Mr Gill's

subject

subject was the Resurrection os the Dead. His two sermons upon it have since been printed separately.

An unpleasing incident happened on the printing the above volumes of sermons. Mr Taylor, Mr Gill, and another or two of the lecturers, agreed to read their sermons in private concert with each other, before they were printed ; that they might have one another's friendly assistance, in the correction and improvement of them, as might seem necessary. Now Mr Gill had observed some passages in Mr Taylor's Sermons, when delivered from the pulpit, which he thought injurious to truth, and calculated to offend many worthy persons. He therefore determined, when those sermons should be read at this private and friendly meeting, to have pointed out, in the kindest and most respectful manner, such passages as he wished to see softened or expunged ; proposing to give his reasons: but when the sermons were read, these passages did not appear, <o the great pleasure and satisfaction of Mr Gill ; who supposed that Mr Taylor had seen reason in his own mind to strike them out. But when the volumes were published, these passages stood, to the great surprise of Mr Gill, and, as he thought, with additional keenness and severity. This obliged him to fend Mr Taylor a printed letter on the subject of God's everlasting love, eternal union, and some other things which Mr Taylor had reproached with great vehemence : having now no other way of doing justice to truth, and vindicating the faithful preachers of it. This letter was written with great respect, temper and candour; without any undue heat, or unbecoming reflections. Nevertheless, this, together with a treatise on justification, which Mr Gill had published a little before, put some interested persons on raising an hideous cry of Antincmianism against him. The treatise on Justification is the substance os some sermons, preached at his Evening-lecture, and which, by the society that supported ic, was desired to be printed. The only thing in it objected to when published, was what is said concerning the date of justification : and which yet was said in great agreement with some of the best and most learned divines, whose testimonies were produced by Mr Gill in favour of his sentiments. But all this could not protect him from the clamour raised against him, by such as did not wish well to him and his ministry. No answer, however, was given to either of these tracts, or to the arguments in them ; but a continued torrent of din and noise flowed from some pulpits, for a long time.

Six years after this, MrTaylor having obtained a degree of Doctor in Divinity, and got himself at the head of an Academy, became still more assuming, imperious and insolent. Continuing to bear Mr Gill a grudge for what was past; he published what he called An Address to young Students: in which he cautioned them to avoid some things as leading to Antinomianism. This performance had

b z several several very acrimonious flings at some good men, and their writings; particularly, at Mr Gill, and an expression of his concerning good works, which ha represented in the worst light he could, and treated with the most reviling language that could well be made use of: This obliged Mr Gill to write a small treatise concerning The Necessity of good works to Salvation : in which having explained, stated, and defended his sense of that matter; at the close of all, being warmed into a quick sensibility of the haughty and insulting language used by his insolent and overbearing adversary, some things were forced and drawn from him, in self-vindication, which he afterwards could have wished had not dropped from his pen.

In 1731, Mr Gill published a Treatise on the Dofirine os the Trinity, which' was the substance of several discourses delivered on that subject at the Wednesday Evening Lecture, and published at the request of the Society : the occasion of which was, the progress of Sabellianism among some of the Baptist churches. In particular, one Mr Davis, a Physician, and a Baptist member, wrote a treatise called The great Concern of Jew and Gentile; with some other little pamphlets, which had a tendency this way ; and which, though very trifling things, having scarce any shew of argument and reasoning in them,, yet it seemed expedient they should be taken notice of in the course of these Sermons on the Trinity-, the Gentleman being a man of a good moral character, and of a soft, insinuating behaviour: his profession also introduced him into several families, where he might have the opportunity of inculcating and spreading his notions.

A society of young men, who kept up an Exercise of Prayer, on Lord's-day Mornings, at Mr Gill's meeting-house at Horfly-down, desired him to preach a Sermon to them December 25, 1732, which he did, on the subject of Prayer: and, in the year following, on the same day of the month, he preached another, to the same society, onjinging of Psalms, from 1 Cor. xiv. 15. which were successively printed at their request. Both these Sermons were, afterwards, reprinted together. That upon Singing, some years after the first publication of it, fell into the hands of Mr Solomon Lowe, a learned and celebrated Grammarian of Hammersmith : who wrote Mr Gill a Letter upon it, dated Sept. 1747, in which he informs him, " he took pleasure, at his vacant hours, to read every thin» that is useful, in order to extract the quintessence of its flowers for the use of a Supplement to Chambers's Cyclopædia ; to the carrying on of which work, he was nominated, to the proprietors, as the properest person, by Mr Chambers himself, a little before his death, and had the offer of it, but declined it, because of his stated business. However, having a great regard to that work, Mr Lowe was willing to help it forward to the best of his power : and therefore continued to digest whatever offered to that purpose. Meeting with the above discourse on Singing, he extracted from That for the article of Psalmody; and

was was pleased to give the following commendation of it: "I find there is no deal" ing with you, as with the generality of wricers. - The afore-mentioned piece ** rs all quintessence: so that, instead of extracting, I have been obliged to " copy the greatest part of it, to do justice to the article of Psalmody, and M know not where to find any hints for the improvements of it V But Mr Lowe dying quickly after, it does not appear that any use was made of his papers in the Supplement published •, at least with respect to any extract from Mr Gill's writings.

In 1735, and in the three following years, Mr Gill published his Cause ofGod and Truth, in four volumes, octavo. In the first part of this work, those passages of scripture are considered, which the Arminians make use of in favour of their sentiments concerning Election and Reprobation, Original Sin, Redemption* Free-will, and the Perseverance of the Saints •, and the true fense of such passages is given, and they are vindicated from the false glosses put upon them. In the second part, the passages of scripture, which are made use of by the Calvinists in support of their sense of the above doctrines, are explained, the true meaning of -them defended, and the cavils of the Arminians answered. The contents of those two parts are extracts from sermons preached on thole several texts, at the Wednesday Evening Lecture. The third part contains the arguments from reason against these doctrines. And the fourth part gives the sense of the ancient fathers, before Austin, concerning those points. This last part was nibbled at, by one Heywood, a pert, worthless man, who translated Dr Wbitby's treatise On Original Sin : in the introduction to which, he brings some impertinent charges against Mr Gill, with respect to his translation and sense of some passages in the ancients : to which Mr Gill replied, in a postscript to his answer to the second part of the Birmingham- Dialogue writer, 1739 j which will be taken notice of hereafter. Heywood, upon this, published a pamphlet, called, A Defence os his Introduction, &c. full of cavils, calumnies, and defamations : which was answered by Mr Gill, in a tract, intitled, A Vindication of the Cause of God and Truth, &c. part 4th. relating to the sense of the ancients about some points in controversy with the Arminians, in which more pains are taken, than so paltry an opponent deserved. This was printed in 1740.

In 1736, was published, by an anonymous writer, a pamphlet, called, Some Doctrines in the Supralapsarian Scheme examined, &c. the author of it, it seems, was one Job Burt, of Warwick: a man very ill qualified for polemical writing; being intirely ignorant of the scheme he undertook to examine, as well as of most other things: however, as this was pointed chiefly at some writings of Mr Gill's, and at the doctrines of God's everlasting Love, eternal Union, Justification, &c. he thought sit to give an answer to him, the same year, in a tract called Truth Defended, &c

* The chief design of this letter to Mr Gill waa, that he would fend him every thing he had published, that he might make a like use of what he judged serviceable to the above work.

The stupidity, insolence and impertinence of the man, sometimes provoked Mr Gill to use a little more acrimony and severity than perhaps some might think needful.

A new meeting-house being erected by the Baptists, at Birmingham in War-ivickjhire; and their interest a little reviving upon it, through the preachino- of several ministers who came thither-, excited the jealousy, it seems, of one Mr Samuel Bourne, a Presbyterian minister of the fame place : who, hereupon wrote Si Dialogue between a Baptist and a Churchman, under the name of a Consistent Christian, part I. in which he set the Baptist ministers, that came to preach at Birmingham, in a most ridiculous light, and fell foul on the doctrines of Christ's TJivinity, Election, Original Sin, irresistible Grace in conversion, imputed Righteousness, Perseverance in grace, and adult Baptism by immersion. The Baptists in those parts, thought it was proper that an answer should be returned : and, upon application, MrGiLL undertook to refute it; and the refutation was published in 1737. The author of the dialogue then wrote a second part, on the fame subjects; taking very little notice of what Mr Gill had written, not so much as mentioning his name. To this also he returned an answer in 1739. But had no reply to either of his answers at that time, except some abusive paragraphs in a news-paper, the St James's Evening Post, December 31, 1737. in the first of these paragraphs, Mr Bourne complains of a falsecharge of Plagiarism brought against him, or of stealing what he had wrote on the article of election, from Dr Whitby : of which Mr Gill made proof, in a postscript to a sermon of his called the doctrine of Grace chared from the charge of Lkentioufnefs, preached Dec. 28, 1737. by placing Dr ffhitby's words and this author's in parallel columns. In this year he wrote and published Remarks on Mr Samuel Chandler's Sermon preached to the societies for the reformation of Manners, relating to the moral nature and fitness of things.

When Mr Gill first came to settle in London, which was in the year 1719, he became intimately acquainted, as he had been in some measure before, with that worthy minister of the gospel, Mr JohnSkepp, author of the DivineEnergy: the second edition of which Book, in 1751, Mr, then Dr Gill, revised, and divided the work into chapters, with contents, for the more easy reading and better understanding it; and prefixed a recommendatory preface to it, the memory of that excellent man being dear to him. This Gentleman, though he had not a liberal education, yet, after he came into the ministry, through great diligence and industry, acquired a large share of knowledge in the languages in which the Bible was originally written : and especially in the Hebrew language ; in which he took immense pains, under the direction of a Jew teacher, and

even. even dipped into Rabbinical Hebrew and writings pretty deeply. As Mr Gill had taken great delight in the Hebrew language, as before observed, his conversation with this worthy minister rekindled a flame of fervent desire to obtain a more extensive knowledge of it; and especially of Rabbinical learning, which. he then had but small acquaintance with, and little notion of any usefulness from it, which he now began to perceive, and more fully afterwards. This Gentjeman dying in a year or two after Mr Gill's fixing in London, he purchased most of his Hebrew and Rabbinical Books; and now went to work with great eagerness, in reading them; and many others, which he afterwards obtained of a Jewish Rabbi he became acquainted with. He plainly saw, that as the New Testament was written by men who had all of them been Jews, and who, notwithstanding their being inspired, must needs retain and use many of the idioms of their language, and allude to rites, ceremonies, and customs peculiar to that people; so the writings of the Jews, especially the more ancient ones, who lived nearest the times of the apostles, could not but be of use for the better understanding the phraseology of the New Testament, and the rites and customs to which it frequently alludes. With this view, he set about reading rheir Targums, the Mi/nah, the Talmuds, the Rabbot, their antient commentaries, the book of Zohar, and whatever else, of this kind, he could meet with : and in a course of between 20 and 30 years acquaintance with those sort of writings, he collected together a large number or observations. Having also gone through, in this time, most part of the New Testament, in a way of Exposition, in the course of his ministry ; he put all together, and in the year 1745 proposed to publish an Exposition of the whole New Testament, in Three Volumes, Folio. And the work meeting with encouragement very quickly, it was put to the press the fame year, and was finished, the First Volume in 1746, the Second in 1747, and the Thirdin 1748.

Towards the close of this work, in 1748, Mr Gill received a Diploma from the Marischal College and University at Aberdeen, creating him Doctor in Divinity, on account of his knowledge of the Scriptures, of the Oriental languages, and of Jewish antiquities, as expressed in the Diploma: along with which, or quickly after, he received two Letters, one from Professor Ojbortt, Principal of the University, declaring to him, that on account of his learned defence of the true sense of the holy Scriptures against Deists and Infidels, and the reputation his other works had procured him in the learned world, as soon as it was moved in their University to confer the degree of Doctor in Divinity on him, it was readily agreed unto : which motion was declared to be without the knowledge of Mr Gill ; and that he [Dr O/born] as Primarius Professor, made a present to him of what was due to him on such a promotion. The other Letter was from

Professor Professor Pollock, Professor of Divinity in the same University, and afterwards Principal of it : in which he signified to Mr Gill, that their Society of the Marischal College had, with great chearfulness, created him Doctor in Divinity, on account of that spirit of learning which appeared in his excellent Commentary-on the New Testament; and congratulated him upon it.

In 1749, the Doctor wrote a treatise, called, The divine Right os InfantBaptism examined and disproved; this was occasioned by a pamphlet, printed at Boston in New England, in ty^.6, written by Mr Jonathan Dickinson, of Elizabeth Town in New Jersey, and afterwards President of the College there, which was intitled, A brief Illustration and Confirmation os the divine Right of Infant Baptism. What put this Gentleman on writing it, was, the increase of the Baptist interest in New England, and the parts adjacent. This pamphlet being boasted of, and multitudes of them being spread about, it being printed in several places in order to hinder the growth of the Baptist interest; the Baptists sent it over to Dr Gill, requesting him to write an answer to it: which he did, in the treatise before observed. To this, Peter Clark, M. A. pastor of a -church in Salem, replied, in a book, called, A Defence of the divine Right of Infant-Baptism; consisting of 450 pages, or more, stuffed with things impertinent to the controversy, printed at Boston, 1752. To this also the Doctor returned an answer, in a Letter to a friend at Boston; which was printed there in 1754, with a fourth edition of a Sermon of the Doctor's preached at Barbican, upon .Baptism, Nov. 2, 175a.

A pamphlet, boasted of as unanswerable, being published under the title of 'she Baptism os Infants a reasonable Service, founded upon Scripture, and undoubted -apostolic tradition. The Doctor published an answer to it, in 1751, intitled, she Argument from apostolic Tradition in favour of Infant-Baptism, with others, &c. considered: along with which was published an answer to a Welch Clergyman's Twenty arguments for Infant-Baptism ; and to the whole were added, The Dissenters Reasons for separating from the Church of England; written chiefly for the .use of the Baptist churches in Wales; and were therefore translated into the Welch language, occasioned by reflections cast upon them by the said Clergyman. On account of the first tract, The Argument from apostolic Tradition, &c. the Dodtor received two Letters from a Franciscan Friar at Sevil in Spain, (who signed himself James Henery) dated in 1754, and in 1755. in the first, he desired to be sent him, by a master of a vessel whom he named, The Dissertation on the Tradition of the Church concerning Infant-Baptism : (induced, as it should seem, by the title of the tract) declaring himself a lover of all learned men, of whatsoever profession. The pamphlet was accordingly sent to him. In his second Letter, he owns the receipt of it ; fays, he had read it with a great deal

of of pleasure; and purposed to draw up a few observations upon it in a candid and friendly manner: believing, that Dr Gill would yield to inspired apostolic tradition, if clearly made out or proved to him. He concludes with wishing for peaceable times, that he might have the pleasure of a correspondence with him. But the Earthquake at Sevil, which was at the fame time with that at Lisbon, obliged him (as the Doctor understood by a master of a vessel) to go up further into the country : and he heard no more of him afterwards.

In 1752 ethe Doctor wrote an answer to a pamphlet called Serious Thoughts upon the Perseverance of the Saints ; written, as it after appeared, by Mr John Wesley : who, in another pamphlet, shifted the controversy, from Perseverance, to Predestination. Mr Westey intitled his piece, Predestination calmly considered: in which he mostly contents himself with haranguing on Reprobation. To this theDoctor returned an answer the same year, and to the exceptions MrWejley had made to part of his Treatise on Perseverance, respecting some passages of scripture brought into the controversy : without attempting, however, to answer one argument advanced by the Doctor in vindication of that doctrine.

In 1753, a pamphlet being published, intitled, Pœdobaptism: or, a Defence of Infant-Baptism in point of antiquity, &c. by an anonymous writer; theDoctor replied to it, in a tract, called, Antipadobaptism: or, Infant-sprinkling an innovation : to which the same author made a rejoinder; but there being nothing new advanced, nor the antiquity of Pædo-baptism cleared, but mere wrangle and cavil, the Doctor thought fit to take no notice of it.

In 1755 he republished Dr Crisp's works, in two volumes, octavo, with explanatory notes on such passages as had been excepted to in them, or needed any explanation; with some Memoirs of the Doctor's Life.

In 1756 he quitted his fPednefday-JLven-mg Lecture, as before related, and published proposals for printing his Exposition of the prophets, both the larger and smaller, in two volumes, folio: and which were published in the two following years, 1757, 1758 ; with an Introduction to them on prophecy, and with a Dissertation at the close of them concerning the Apocryphal writings.

« In this year, March 15, the Dr had a very memorable escape from being killed in his Study. . That morning, there was a violent hurricane of wind, by which much damage was done to many houses both in London and Westminster. Soon after the Doctor had left his Study, to go to preach ; -m stack of chimties were blown down, which sorced through the roof into his Study, breaking his writing-table to pieces, and must have killed him if it had happened a little sooner. Reflecting on which remarkable preservation to a friend. who had some time besore mentioned a saying of DrHalley, the great Astronomer, " That close study prolonged a man's life, by keeping him out of harm's way;" he said, What becomes of Dr Halley'/ words vow, fince a man may come to danger and barm in bis closet, Ms well as on tbe bigbway, if not protested by the special care of Gotss providence ?

In the year 1757, a new Meeting-house was erected, by the church under his care, in Carter-lane, St Olave's-street, Southwark : which was opened Oil. 9, in the fame year, when two Sermons were preached by him on Exod. xx. 24. and afterwards printed, intitled, Attendance in places of religious worship, where the divine Name is recorded, encouraged.

In 1761 the Doctor published proposals for printing the remainder of his Exposition of the Old Testament; beginning at Genesis and ending with Solomon's Song: the first Volume of which was published in the beginning of the year 1763; the Second, in the beginning of the year 1764; the Third, in the beginning of the year 1765; and the Fourth and last, in the beginning of the year 1766.

In the year 1765, some copies of Mr Clark's Defence of the divine right of Infant-Baptism, being imported from America, and published here, occasioned the Doctor to reprint and republish his Reply to it. Another treatise also being imported and reprinted here, about the same time, called, A fair and rational vindication of the right of Infants to the Ordinance of Baptism, being the substance of several discourses from Ails ii. 29. by David Boftwick, M. A. lax minister of the Presbyterian church in the city of New-2"ork; the Doctor made some strictures on that performance, which are published at the end of the Reply ta Mr Clark.

A little after this, the Rev. Mr Carmichael, minister of the gospel in Edinburgh, being convinced of the truth of believers' Baptism by immersion, came toLcndon to be baptized, and was baptized by the Doctor : at which time, a Sermon was preached from 1 John v. 3. which, a few days after, was reflected upon in one of the public news-papers. This obliged the Doctor, contrary to his inclination, to publish his Sermon, which he intitled, Baptism a divine commandment to beobserved: with some marginal notes, vindicating it from the gross abuses, misrepresentations, and cavils of the letter-writer in the news-paper. This affair made a great stir ; and many things appeared in the said paper, for and against: until the writer of the news-paper himself put a stop to it, by refusing to publish any more letters on either fide.

The Doctor being called upon, in another news-paper, either to expunge, or explain, a paragraph in his Preface to his Reply to Mr Clark's Defence; he chose the latter: and published a tract, called, Infant-Baptism a part and pillar of Popery -, with a postscript, containing an answer to the Letters of Candidus, the other writer before mentioned. This tract gave great offence to some Pædobaptists j but no reply was made to to it.

In 1767 the Doctor published a Dissertation on the Antiquities of the Hebrew Language, Letters, Vowel-Points^ and Accents: which was treated with candour and

ingenuity

ingenuity by the Critical Reviewers; who, though they could not agree with every thing in it, particularly concerning the authority of the Points, yet allowed the work was executed with great industry, sagacity, and learning: and, when they object any thing, give their reasons for it: upon which the Doctor, in some loose papers, has made some curious and learned remarks, especially the following: whereas he observes, that «?<*/«, in Matt. v. 18. is no other than the Point Chirek made Greek, they express their wonder at it ; and think he must mistake pi-rr for r\p. But he observes, the wonder will cease, when the power of the Hebrew Letters, of which Chirek consists, is considered : which obtains in other languages ; especially in the Greek. So * is pronounced by n. So the City nrr, Church, or Karan, is, in theSeptuagint (Gen. xi. 32.) called vp^er: and by Ptolemy, Herodian, and other writers, ^p^s; and the Point Chirek itself is sometimes, in the Septuagint, used as an », or an ■: as in Seon, Cedius, Jesse, Jezabel: yea, the very name of it is Chirek with Jewish writers. Schindler Lexic. sol. 662. So then you have the first and principal syllable in the word xtp, and there is only p at the end of the word to be accounted for: and that and n, in some languages, are used promiscuously : as in Bebek and Behah. Besides, in the Chaldee or Syro-Chaldean language, used in Christ's time, and before; the fame word, which ends in Np, i», has the termination of ky, net, or ata. Thus araka is read araa in the same verse, Jer.x. 11. and then, put all together, and you have the word M&* or jw^w*. Now as our Lord refers to the least letter (Tod) in the Hebrew language, and from which all the other letters are derived, as some learned men have observed, this being a part and branch of each of them ; so it need not be wondered, that he should refer to the least Point in that language, and from which all the rest come : and, indeed, though the Points are represented as very numerous, yet there is but one Point in the whole language; and that is Chirek [.] diversified, or placed in a different position. Thus Patach is only Chirek diteted ; Kametz is that in a cluster; Segol is three of them set in a triangle ; Tzere is two of them in a direct line ; and Sbeva is two more in a perpendicular one ; and Kibbutz is three of them placed obliquely; and, when placed in the middle of Vau, or above that, or another letter, it is either an u or an 0. And the like observations may be made on all the compound vowels. To derive this word from the Hebrew word rip, which signifies an born; as if ourLord referred to some corniculated apices, pricks, or spikes upon the tops of some letters, not in use in his time (as Capellus and others); is mere fiction and conceitf. There is such a vein of ignorance, dullness, and ill-nature, runs through the whole of what the Monthly Reviewers say, that the Doctor thought them too low for him to make any remarks upon.

It is much better to take Ki(*ix for the Point Cbirek itself. Dr Lightsoot thinks our Lord refers to the least Vowel or Accent, as well as to the least Letter: and Elias Hutter, in his Hebrew version, renders one tittle by one chirek: and feme, in Dr Hammond on the place, understood it of Cbirek.

The very learned Professor of the Oriental languages, in the University of Edinburgh, Dr James Robertson, had another opinion of Dr Gill's performance: for, in a Dissertation on the antiquity of the Points, prefixed to his truly learned and useful Clavis Pentateuchi, Dr Robertson has these words : " Vir Doctissiinus Joannes " Gill, et qui in Rabbinicis fcriptis versatissimus esse videtur, in Dissertatione " sua de punctorum vocalium antiquitate, summa cum industra et doctrina, ne " vestigium quoddam masoretharum, ut pote punctorum vocalium auctorum, " in tota historia Judaica, a nato Christo ad annum 1037, addesse affirmat, pro" batque."

In the same year, Dr Gill collated the various passages of the Old Testament, quoted in the Misnah, in the Talmuds, both Jerusalem and Babylonian, and in the Rabboth; and extracted the variations in them, from the modern printed text ; which he sent to Dr Kennicott, at Oxford, then collating the several Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament to be met with in any of the libraries in Europe; and which Dr Kennicott thus acknowledged his receipt of, in his state of that collation, published in the year 1767 : " I have been highly obliged by the " Reverend and Learned DrGiLL, who has extracted and sent me the variations " from the modern Bibles in the passages quoted in the Talmuds, both oi-Jeru" salem and Babylon, and also in the Rabboth: which variations, in these ancienc « books of the Jews, affect the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, as the va" nations in the ancient christian fathers affect the Greek text of the New."

In the year 1769, he published a Body osDoctrinalDivinity, in Two Volumes, Quarto; which contain the substance of what he delivered from the pulpit to the people under his care, for the space of upwards of five years : and gave the public reason to expect a Third Volume, then preparing, which would contain a Body of Practical Divinity, and which he proposed to do when he began his course of doctrinal Divinity, as his Introduction to that shews.

In the year 1770, his Body os Practical Divinity was published: which, with the other Two Volumes, completes his whole scheme of Divinity; which he thought would be the last work published by him. At the end of it, is a Dissertation concerning the Baptism os Jewish Proselytes: This the Doctor had upon his mind for many years to write; supposing it not very probable, that any of the Baptist denomination might soon rise up and take the pains in the study of Rabbinical literature he had done, and which yet was necessary for such a performance. He therefore thought proper to draw up the whole compass of the argument, in the above dissertation, and leave it behind him, that any one might make himself master of it, who should chuse it, and use it as occasion Siould offer. It has since been published separately, in %vo.

Having

Having collected together such outlines, as we were able, of the L i F E and Writings of this excellent and learned Divine; we (hall close these MeMoirs with giving a short Character of him.

IT pleased God to endue Dr Gill with strong mental powers, and with an eager and intense desire after improvement in knowledge. This appeared very early, in his ardent thirst after learning; which he diligently sought for, and the best means to obtain it; and with great industry improved every opportunity afforded him : so that, in a few years, he made a considerable progress in the knowledge of the learned languages, and all kind of useful literature.

As he grew up in life, he pursued his studies with indefatigable diligence, and the closest application: by which means, under the blessing of God, he attained to a very superior degree of solid and useful learning, and acquired an established character for it, amongst the learned of all denominations.

His natural and acquired abilities were very considerable. He had a quick and clear understanding, a solid and penetrating judgment, a fertile invention, with a strong, capacious, and uncommonly retentive memory. Blesied with these gifts, he was enabled to improve them to the glory of God, which was the grand object he had in view. But, above all, his soul was enriched with a considerable measure of Grace, and the gifts of the Holy Spirit ; whereby he was abundantly fitted and qualified for, and made an able Minister of the New Testament. He was favoured with a large experience of the grace of God; great acquaintance with the scriptures; and clear light into the gospel of Jesus Christ.

As a minister, his deportment in the pulpit was grave and solemn : his language plain and expressive : his method natural and easy : his reasoning strong and nervous : his addresses affectionate : his matter substantial, clear and consistent, well digested, and delivered with great fluency and accuracy, which failed not to command and six the attention of his hearers. In prayer, he poured out his soul with great freedom and fervency, with much importunity, familiarity and liberty ; and, like another Apollos, was mighty in the scriptures, and had the tongue of the learned to speak a word in season.

The great doctrines of the gospel which he espoused, and which he at first set out with in the work of the Lord, and constantly and firmly abode by through life, even unto death; were such as respect a trinity ofpersons in the godheadparticular and personalEleilion—the everlastingsew of God—theCovenantof grace —the Fall of Adam, and the consequences of it—Particular Redemption, through the Incarnation, Obedience, Sufferings, Death, Resurrection and Intercession of the Son of God—Pardon through his blood—Justification by his righteousness—

the the Efficacious Grace of the holy Spirit in Regeneration—the perseverance of the Saints in Grace to Glory—the Resurrection of the dead—and eternal Life—these truths, with all those doctrines connected with or dependent on them, this faithful servant of Jesus Christ did constantly labour to explain, illustrate, and defend : at the fame time, never omitting to recommend and enforce the several duties which are enjoined us in the sacred oracles of eternal truth. He did not shun to declare the -whole counsel of God, and kept back nothing that might be profitable to the people ; constantly affirming, that those who believe should be careful to maintain good works. His ministry, by the blessing of God, was very much owned, and greatly succeeded to the awakening, conversion, comfort, instruction, edification, and establishment of many, who enjoyed the opportunity of attending upon it. And it is worthy of notice, that three persons, who had been converted under his ministry, were afterwards called to that important work themselves*.

As a Pastor, he constantly and carefully watched over the flock committed to his charge, and of which he had taken the oversight, with great affection, fidelity and love; and filled up his place in the house of God with honour and usefulness. In which office he continued to his death, above Fifty-one years; labouring, with great assiduity, for the good of souls; earnestly contending for the faith once delivered to the saints; and zealoufly concerned for the honour of the Redeemer, his cause and interest in the world. And nothing more filled him with grief, than when the deity and divine filiation of the Son of God were denied, or any attempts made to leffen, or sink the dignity of his person, the virtue and efficacy of his blood, and of that full and compleat salvation that is alone in him. Nor was he in the least moved from the glorious truths of the gospel, by the subtilty of any of its adversaries. He expressed the comfort he received from those words in Acts xx. 24. But none of these things move me-, neither count I my life dear to myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry which I have received of the Lord Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God. And through divine grace he was enabled to hold out to the last, and valiantly to contend for the truth on earth.

As an Author^ this great man of God discovered uncommon abilities. His numerous publications, all written with his own hand, are, and will be, standing proofs of his indefatigable industry. Indeed, his labours were so numerous, that it may well appear, to posterity, almost incredible, that any one person should be the author of them. Especially considering the vast variety of authors he must have read : as appears by the many criticisms he has made on the languages in which the scriptures were written.

t The Reverend Messieurs John Brine, William Anderson, and James Fall.

The judicious elucidations of the historical parts of scripture, the clear explanation of the Types and Metaphors, the Parables and Prophecies; the illustrations of the Truths, Doctrinal and Practical, to be found in his elaborate and voluminous Exposition os the Old and New Testament ; sufficiently shew, that this eminent minister of the gospel had, by an uncommon blessing upon his labours, attained to a large compass of useful knowledge.—Great was his acquaintance with the sacred scriptures; with Jewish learning; the Oriental tongues; the Rites and Customs of Eastern nations; Greek and Roman Poets and Historians ; the liberal Arts and Sciences; Ecclesiastical History ; the writings of the Fathers, and the several Controversies carried on in defence of Christianity.

His writings were not only received with great approbation in these kingdoms, but also in various parts of America. Many .were the Letters he received from the ministers and others in those parts, expressing the high esteem they had for him and his works, and the great benefit they received from his labours. He was much solicited to cultivate an extensive correspondence; but this he was obliged to decline, as it would have proved too great an avocation from his studies.

His controversial tracts abundantly display his consummate ability and skill in pointing out the evil nature and tendency of erroneous principles. The weakness and fallacy of the arguments brought to support them, and the inconclusiveness of the objections raised against the truth : and in clearly stating and solidly defending the gospel, so as to silence its adversaries, and confirm the faithful in their adherence to Christ and his Religion.

The numerous Sermons published by him, are fraught with rich, solid, evangelical truths; deep christian experience ; and the most cogent motives to every good word and work. The Body of Doctrinal and Practical Divinity, which he lived to see finished and published, shews his profound, clear, and extensive understanding in the mysteries of God ; the respective branches of practical religion ; the nature, use, and extent of the divine law ; and the positive institutions of Jesus Christ.

Notwithstanding his exalted attainments, he was meek and humble, of a tender and sympathizing spirit; weeping with those that wept; and rejoicing with them that rejoiced: ever ready to acknowledge, that all he had, of parts, learning, and grace, was freely bestowed upon him by that God, from whom comes every good and perfect gift. His conversation quite through life, was honourable and ornamental; such as became the gospel of Christ, which he professed and laboured in.

His last labours, among the people of his care, was from that part of the song of Zachariah, the first chapter of Luke, the latter part of the 77th verse,

and

and former part of the 78 th verse. By the remission of their sins, through the tender mercy of our God. This was the last text he preached from. His health had. been on the decline for some time ; and he himself thought his work was done.

I The decay of nature was, however, very gradual. His complaint was loss of appetite; and frequently a violent pain in his stomach : his appetite continued to fail more and more, till at last, for some time before his death, it was totally lost. He bore his visitation with great patience, composure, and resignation of mind to the divine will ; without uttering the least complaint; without ever saying to God, What dost thou ?

He could have wished to have sinished the song of Zacharias; and also the dying song of good old Simeon, in which, he thought, there was something similar to his own case. And especially he longed to be at his nunc di minis; Now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, with what follows. This was much upon his mind, and he thought, should he live to go through that, it might be, God would then give him his dismission, and let him also depart in peace. —But his decline increasing daily upon him, he grew weaker and weaker; so that he could not proceed in his delightful work : and yet, notwithstanding he was rendered incapable of appearing in public, he continued to be employed in his study, till within two or three weeks of his death ; and always appeared calm, serene, and chearful. His faith was steady, and his hope firm, to the last.—To a relation he thus expressed himself: " I depend wholly and alone upon the free sovereign,

, *' eternal, unchangeable and everlasting love of God; the firm and everlasting cove«« nant of grace, and my interest in the persons of the Trinity ; for my whole salva" tion: and not upon any righteousness of my own, nor any thing in me, or done by " me under the influences of the holy Spirit; nor upon any services of mine, which I " have been assisted to perform for the good os the church ; but upon my interest in " the persons of the Trinity, the person, blood and righteousness of Christ, the free n grace of God, and the blessings of grace streaming to me through the blood and " righteousness of Christ; as the ground of my hope. These are no new things with •' me; but what I have been long acquainted with; what I can live and die by. " And this you may tell to any of my friends. I apprehend Ijhall not be long here " He expressed himself nearly in the same manner to other friends. To one that visited him, he said, " / have nothing to make me mteajy :" and repeated the following lines from Dr Watts,

He rais'd me from the deeps of sin,

The gates of gaping hell :

And stx'd my standing more secure

Than 'twas before I fell.

This

This tranquillity of soul, and inward joy and peace of mind, never left him. The last words he was heard to speak were, " O my Father, my Father." And J then gently fell asleep in Jesus, without a figh or groan, on the 14th day of October, 1771, at his house in Camberwell, Surry; aged seventy-three years, ten months and ten days.

[ What follows is drawn by another hand. ]

SUCH were the indefatigable labors, such the exemplary life, and such the comfortable death, of this great and eminent person. If any one man can be supposed to have trod the whole circle of human learning, it was Dr Gill. His attainments, both in abstruse and polite literature, were (what is very uncommon) equally extensive and profound. Providence had, to this end, endued him with a firmness of constitution, and an unremitting vigor of mind, which rarely fall to the lot of the sedentary and learned. It would, perhaps, try the constitutions of half the literati in England, only to read, with care and attention, the Whole of what he wrote.

The Doctor was not one who considered any subject superficially, and by halves. As deeply as human sagacity, enlightened by grace, could penetrate, he went to the bottom of every thing he engaged in. With a solidity of judgment, and with an acuteness of. discernment, peculiar to few, He exhausted, as it were, the very soul and substance of most arguments he undertook—His stile, too, resembles himself; it is manly, nervous, plain : conscious, if I may so speak, of the unutterable dignity, value, and importance of the freight it conveys ; it drives, directly and perspicuously, to the point in view, regardless of affected cadence, and superior to the little niceties of profesied resinement.

Perhaps, no man, since the days of St Austin, has wr-tten so largely, in defence of the system of Grace : and, certainly, no man has treated that momentous subject, in all its branches, more closely, judiciously and successfully. What was said of Edward the Black Prince, That he never fought a Battle, which he did not win ; What has deen remarked of the great Duke of Marlhorough, That he never undertook a Siege, which he did not carry ; may be justly accommodated to our great Philosopher and Divine : who, so far as the Distinguishing Doctrines of the Gospel are concerned, never besieged an Error, which he did not force from its strongholds ; nor ever encountered an Adversary, whom did not baffle and subdue.

Vol. I. d His

His learning and labors, if exceedable, were exceeded only by the invariable sanctity of his life and conversation. From^his childhood, to his entrance on the ministry •, and, from his entrance on the ministry, to the moment of his dissolution ; not one of his most inveterate opposers was ever able to charge him with the least shadow of immorality. Himself, no less than his writings,

DEMONSTRATED, that THE DOCTRINE OF GRACE DOES NOT LEAD TO LICENTIOUSNESS.

Those, who had the honour and happiness of being admitted into the number of his friends, can go still farther in their testimony. They know, that his moral demeanor was more than blameless : It was, from first to last, consistently exemplary. And, indeed, an undeviating Consistency, both in his views of evangelical Truths •, and in his obedience, as a servant of God ; was one of those qualities, by which his cast of character was eminently marked. He was, in every respect, a burning and a shining light. Burning, with love to God, to Truth, and to Souls : Shining, as " an ensample to Believers, in Word, in *' Faith, in Purity -, " a pattern of good works, and a model of all holy conversation and godliness.

The Doctor has been accused of Bigotry, by some, who were unacquainted with his real temper and character. Bigotry may be defined, Such a Blind and Furious attachment to any particular principle, or set of principles, as disposes us to Wish Ill to those persons who differ from us in judgment. Simple Bigotry, therefore, is, The spirit of persecution, without the power: and persecution is no other than Bigotry, armed with force, and carrying its malevolence into act. Hence it appears, that to be clearly convinced of certain propositions, as true; and to be siedfaft in adhering to them, upon that conviction; nay, to assert and defend those propositions, to the utmost extent of argument; can no more be called Bigotry, than the shining of the Sun can be termed Ostentation. If, in any parts of his Controversial Writings, the Doctor has been warmed into some little neglects of ceremony toward his assailants; it is to be ascribed, not to Bigotry (for he possessed a very large share of Benevolence and Candor) but to that complexional sensibility, inseparable, perhaps, from human nature in its present state; and from which, it is certain, the Apostles themselves were not exempt.

His Doctrinal aod Practical Writings will live, and be admired, and be a standing blessing to posterity; when their opposers are forgot, or only remembered by the refutations he has given them. While true Religion, and sound Learning, have a single friend remaining in the British Empire, the Works and Name of Gill will be precious and revered.

May

May the Readers of this inadequate sketch, together with him, who (though of a very different denomination from the Doctor) pays this last and unexaggerated tribute of justice to the honored memory of so excellent a person ; participate, on earth, and everlastingly celebrate in heaven, that Sovereign GRACE, which its departed Champion so largely experienced—to which He was so distinguished an ornament—and of which He was so able a defender !

July 29, 1772.

The following Latin Inscription is engraved on the Doctor's Tomb in Bunhill- Fields.

IN HOC CŒMETERIO

CONDVNTVR RELI QJV I Æ

I O A N N I S GILL S. T. P.

VIRI VITÆ INTEGRI DISCIPVLI IESV 1NGENVI PRÆCONIS EVANGELII INSIGNIS DEFENSORIS FIDEI CHRISTIANÆ STRENVI

Q^V I

INGENIO ERVDITIONE PIETATE ORNATVS

LABORIBVSQJE PERMAGNIS SEMPER INVICTVS

ANNOS SVPRA Q^VINQ^VAGINT A

DOMINI MANDATA FACESSERE

ECCLESIÆ RES ADIVVARE

HOMINVM SALVTEM ASSEGAI

FERVORE PERPETVO ARDENTE

CONTENDIT

IN CHRISTO PLACIDE OBDORMIVIT

PRIDIE ID. OCTOBRIS A. D. MDCCLXXI.

ÆTATIS SVÆ LXXIV.