Preached Otlober 9, 1757, at the Opening of a New Place for Worship, in Carter-lane, St Olave's-street, Southwark.
Exodus XX. 24.
In all places, where I record my name, I will come unto thee,
and I will bless thee. , ..../.• - . . '
THIS chapter begins with an account of the giving of the law of the decalogue, or ten commands, on mount Sinai, to the children of Israel. A very compendious system of morality this, and was peculiarly calculated for that people; as the preface to it shows, / am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; Thou shalt have no other God, &c. and was admirably adapted to their tempers, dispositions, and circumstances; and exceedingly well suited to correct their minds and manners-, and to guide and direct them in matters of religion, and in their duty to God and man: not but that all of it, that is of a moral nature, is binding upon the Gentiles, and especially ought to be regarded by us Christians, who profess ourselves to be the followers of Jesus •, since most of the precepts of it have been recited and urged by him *, and the whole by him reduced to these two heads, love toGod, and love to our neighbour -, saying, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind; this is the first and great commandment: and the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: on these two commandments hang all the law and the prophetsb. And the apostle Paul, a disciple of his, and one that had the mind of Christ, having mentioned the several laws of the second table, observes ; that // there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.'-—
as 1 Matt. xix. 17—19. * Matt. xxii. 37—40.
Therefore, love is the fulfilling of the law; for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the lawc: and elsewhere he says, all the law is fulfilled in one word * ; even this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. And the rather this law should be attended to by us, since our blessed Redeemer and Saviour came not to destroy ic, but to fulfil it% by his subjection to it, both to the precept and penalty of it; whereby, though he has delivered us from the curse and condemnationof.it, yet has he not exempted us from obedience to it •, so that we are not without law to God, though freed from obligation to punishment for the transgression of it, through the satisfaction of our surety ; but are under the law to Christf, as he is head, king, and lawgiver in his church. And it is with pleasure we can behold the law fulfilled for us by his obedience, sufferings, and death, and held forth in his hand, as king of saints, as a rule of walk and conversation unto us: in which view of it, every believer may fay of it, as the apostle did, I delight in the law of God, after the inward man1. The delivery of this law, indeed, was attended with very terrifying circumstances ; such as a dark, thick, tempestuous cloud, fire, and smoke; thunders, lightening?, and earthquakes •, which not only made the children of Israel to tremble, and to stand ata distance-, but Moses himself said, I exceedingly fear and quake \ These were emblems of the dreadful things uttered by the law, against the transgressors of it; and of the terrible consequences of their transgressions; and of the terrors raised by it in the consciences of awakened sinners; wherefore the apostle fays, Tell me,ye that desire to be under the law '; that is, as a covenant of works, do ye not hear the law? the voice and language of ir, its menaces and curses, what it faith to them who are under it, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God*. It accuses of breaches and violations of it; it effectually supports its charges; it convicts of guilt, and confounds the sinner; and fays enough, to the silencing of all objections; so that nothing can be said, why judgment should not proceed, and the sentence be pronounced and executed. To them who are of the works of the law ; who seek for justification, salvation, and eternal life, by obedience to it; it says, Cursed is every one that continuetb not in all things, which are written in the book of the law, to do them'. In stiort, it is a cutting and killing letter, and the ministration of condemnation and death. Hence a Mediator was found necessary, and desired by the people of Israel, at this time the law was given ; They said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, left we die, ver. 19. This office Moses undertook, at their request, and drew near unto the thick darkness, where God was, ver. 21. and became a Mediator between God and them; and has the name name of one given him. Hence the law is said to be ordained by angels, in the hand of a Mediator m ; that is, Moses, who was a type of Christ, the Mediator between God and man ; by whom we have access to him, with boldness and confidence, through his being the fulfilling end of the law for righteousness % by obeying the precept, and bearing the penalty of it.
« Rom. xii. 8—10. * Gal. v. 14. < Matt. v. 17. f 1 Cor. ix. 21.
£ Rom. vii. 22. " Heb. xii.21. ' Gal.iv.21. " Rom. iii 19. ' Galiii.io.
Now, though this law, as to the manner of its delivery, was so terrible; yet, as to the matter of it, it was holy, just, and good; a transcript of the divine nature, and a revelation of the will of God •, and it was an high favour; and a peculiar privilege to be indulged with it: hence, fays Moses, What nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous, as all this law that I set before you this day' ? And the psalmist David also takes notice of this, as an instance of the distinguishing goodness of God to the people of Israel ; He Jheweth his word unto Jacob ; his statutes and his judgments unto Israel; he hath not dealt so with any nation ; and as for his judgments they have not known them ; praise ye the Lord*. And the apostle Paul reckons, among the many special privileges of the Jewish nation, that to them pertained the covenant, the giving of the law, and the service of God*. Wherefore, since Jehovah condescended to speak with them from heaven, and favoured them with a divine revelation •, they were laid under obligation to serve and worship him, in the mainer he should direct them, as well as in places where they should doit. You have seen, says he, ver. 22, 23. that I have talked with you from heaven : ye shall not make with me gods of silver ; neither/hall ye make unto you gods of gold; and then directs them to make an altar, to offer on it sacrifice unto him, ver. 24 an altar of earth thou shalt make unto me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, thy sheep, and thine oxen ; which altar was a type of Christ, who is that altar we christians, or believers in Christ, have -, have a right unto, to use it, and partake of it •, whereof they have no right to eat, that serve the tabernacle ', or keep up the Jewish forms of worship, now abolished: that altar, that sanctifies every spiritual gift, presented on it by faith, and which renders every spiritual sacrifice of prayer or praise acceptable to God *. Also the sacrifices offered up on the altar of earth, were typical of better •, even of the sacrifice of Christ, which is of a sweet-smelling savour to God ; thereby sin being made an end of, and reconciliation and atonement made for it. Now, the Lord, to encourage the people of Israel to worship him in his own way, and where he would have them, promises his presence with them, and his blessing on them, in the words I have read to you j In all places where I record my name, I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. As yet no particular places were appointed for worship-, and, therefore, he says, where I record, or am about to record, or (hall record.
m Ga! iii 19- * Rom. x. 4. • Deut. iv. 8. ' Pselm cxlvii 19. 20.
1 Rom ix. 4 ' Heb. xiii. 10. • Matt, xxiii. 19. Isai. Ivi. 7.
The tabernacle was not now erected, nor orders given for it, which afterwards were, Let them make me a sanRuary, that I may dwell among them '. Nor as yec was die ark of the testimony made, over which was the mercy-feat; on which were the cherubim ; between which Jehovah took up his residence; nor were any place, or places, pointed at as yet, where the tabernacle, or the things in it, when made, should be set up: and, though after this, the Lord did signify there was a place he should choose to put his name in, and cause it to dwell there; and where, and where only, they fliould come and offer their sacrifices, and keep their pass-over, and other feasts; yet he did not presently express this byname-, eventually, and in the issue, it appeared to be the city of Jerusalem ; though before that, the tabernacle and the ark in it, were at other places, as Gilgal, Shi.'oh, &c. but this was a fixed and stable place for it: here Solomon, by divine direction, built a magnificent temple, where the worship of God was continued some hundreds of years : this was destroyed by the Chaldeans, which occasioned an intermission of service for some time; and then it was rebuilt by Zorobabel, which continued till the coming of Christ, and was a little time after demolished by the Romans; and ever since, the worfliip of God is not limited and restrained to any certain place; neither at Jerusalem, nor any other particular place, are men obliged to worship the Father; but they may worship him any where, so be it they worship him injpirit and in truth ". Under the gospel-dispensation, men may ///if up holy hands every where, without wrath and doubting w; they may pray and preach, and administer the ordinances of Christ, wherever they can find a place proper and convenient: the only description of places, and the only direction to us, where we should meet and worship, is, where God records his name : And, in this light and view of things, I mall consider the above words, by observing,
I. What those places are which God has a regard unto; and where his peo
ple have encouragement to serve and worship him; and these are, where be records his name.
II. The regard he has to such places, and the encouragement he gives to per
sons that worship him : he promises his presence and his blessing; / will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.
I. The place, or places where the people of God are directed to worship him, and he shews a regard unto, are where his name is recorded. Under this head I shall shew, what is meant by the name of the Lord ; what by recording bis name; and point at the places where this may be done.
Vol. I. H h First,
« Exod. xzv. 8. « Gal. iv. si, 231 24.' w 1 Tim.ii. 8.
First, What may be intended by the name of the Lord; which admits of various significations, i. By it is sometimes meant the Lord himself; as, when it is said, The name os the God of Jacob defend thee*; that is, God himself, who is Jacob's God ; for who else is the defence of his people ? He is a wall of fire round about them ; he is their place of defence; which is the munition of rocks •, and being so, they may sing unto God their strength, and say unto him, as David did, God is my defence, and the God of my mercy y. Again, when it is said, The name of the Lord is a strong tower, the righteous runneth into it, and is jafe*. The meaning is, the Lord himself is a strong tower; and such the Psalmist often calls him, faying, he is my salvation and my high tower, a fljelter forme, and a strong tower from the enemy1: Hither do the saints betake themselves, in times of distress and danger; and here they remain safe until the calamities be overpast. So the name of Christ signifies Christ himself ; In his name shall the Gentiles trustb ; that is, in himself; in his person for acceptance ; in his righteousness for justification ; in his blood for pardon •, and in his fulness for all supply. Nor is any other the proper object of trust and confidence ; not any creature or creature-act : Blessed is the man that trustetb in the Lord, and whose hope the Lord ise.
2. The name of the Lord sometimes intends his perfections; as, when it is said of Christ, the angel of God's presence; the angel that went before the Israelites, and guided and guarded them through the wilderness, to the land of Canaan, Beware of him, and obey his voice ; —for my name is in, him * \ the nature and perfections of God; the whole fulness of the Godhead dwells in him; every perfection of Deity ; all that the Father hath, he has -y he is the express image of his person; and so like him, having the whole divine nature in-him, that he who fees the one fees the other. And, as these are in him, as God, as a divine person ; so they are displayed in him as mediator; in whom God has proclaimed his name; that is, his perfections of mercy, grace, goodness, justice, and holiness particularly ; since it follows, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth; keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression, and fin, and that will by no means clear the guilty' v for these divine perfections are more especially glorified in our redemption and salvation by Christ; where mercy and truth are met together, righteousness and peace have kissed each other'. Once more, where it is said, O Lord our God, how excellent is thy name in all the earth! / The fense is ; " What a glorious display of thy perfections is made in the earth, through the preaching of the gospel! whereby, in the first times of it, to which this passage belongs, was given the light of the knowledge of the glory of God, in the face, or person, of Jesus Christ" ?"
* Psalm xx. l. r Psalm lix. 17. * Prov xvni. to. * Psalm xviii. 1. and Ixi. 3.
* Matt. xii. 17. c Jer. xvii. 7. ' Exod. xxiii. 21. ' Exod.xxxiii. 19. and xxxiv. 5, 6,7.
* Psalm lixxv. 10. s Psalm viii. u
that is, of" the glorious perfections of God, as they are set forth in the person of Christ:, and in the work of redemption : and so in the latter day, by the fame means, will the earth be filled with the knowledge of the glory cf the Lord, as the waters cover the sea'.
3. By the name of the Lord may be meant, any, or every name of the Lord, by which he is revealed, manifested, and made known to the sons of men. The first name of his we meet with, is that of Elohim ; In the beginrimgGcd (Elohim) created the heavens and the earth k -, which name has the signification of worship and adoration in it; being derived from a root1 which signifies to worship; God being the sole object of religious worship •, and to which the apostle may be thought to have some respect, when he explains Deity, by that which is worshipped ; for, speaking of antichrist, he says, who oppofeth and exaheth himself above all that is called God, or is worshippedTM. And the word Elohim being of the plural number, may with propriety enough be rendered, the adorable ones; and very well be thought to denote a plurality; which, according to divine revelation, is a Trinity of persons, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost; which three are one-, and who manifestly appear in the creation of all things: The Father, who created all things by Jesus Christ-, and the Word, who spake, and it was done ; who commanded, and it stood fast ; who said, Let such and such a thing be, and it was: and the Spirit of God, who garnished the heavens, and moved upon the face of the waters ; and brought the confused and indigested chaos into the beautiful order the earth since was: So true is that of the Psalmist, By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the host of them by the breath, or spirit, of his mouth". The next name by which God made himself known, is that of God Almighty; of which he himself fays; / appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God Almighty °; referring, no doubt in the first place, and particularly to his appearance to Abraham, when ninetv years of age; to whom he said, I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect9.
H h 2 has
h 2 Cor. iv. 6. ■ Hab. ii. 13. k Gen. 1. i.
1 n7K Celuit, adoravit, idem quod 12y. unde H7N Deus, quasi numen venerandum, Hottinger. Smegna oriental. 1. 1. c. vii. p. 123. i~]7H Coluit, veneratus est, adoravit, apud Arabes; indeed
n"?X Dcus, sic dictus, quod veneraiione, cultu, & adoratione prosequendus sit Generatim & vi
originis notat mSaapuL, h e. numen venerabile feu adorandum. Stockii Clavis Ling.S. p. 61. Jure meritissimo contenditur, Hebræos olim possedifle geminam radicem. alteram J-|^N Juravit, pro '^ vel 1?N ult. vaw aut je j alteram Jlbii • He mobili 8c radical), Coluit, unde ,T)^N numen colendum Schultens. Comment, in Job i. 1. torn I-p. 4. Sic ami, ut De Dieu Aoimadv. in Exod. vii. 1. Paschii Dissert, de Selah inThesaur. Philol. Theolog. vol. I. p. 671.
■ 2 Thesf. ii. 4. n Psalm xzxiii. 6. ° Exod. vi. 3. ? Gen. xvii. 1.
A name that well agrees with him ; as is clear by his making all things out of nothing; by upholding, and maintaining in Being the things he has made ; by the redemption and preservation of his people ; and by fulfilling his purposes, prophecies, and promises9. And there is no name or title by which he makes himself known, that is more suited to encourage the faith and hope of his children, in times of difficulty and danger; since his band is not shortened, that it cannot save'. Another name following this, by which the divine Being has thought fit to manifest himself, is that of Jehovah; which it was not his pleasure to make himself known by to the above Patriarchs; for, he fays, But by my name Jehovah was I not known to them''. This is expressive of his existence; of him as the Being of beings; of his immutability and eternity '; and is referred to, when Moses, having asked of God, what he should fay to the children of Israel., should they inquire of him who sent him to them, saying, What is his name ? He is bid to fay, / am that lam, hath sent me to you"; or, " 1 am that I was; and 1 am that I shall be " or, as John well deciphers it, which is, and which was, and which is to come w; taking in all time and tenses, past, present, and future \ And this being a name peculiar to the most high God, and yet given to Christ, Jehovah cur righteousness, is no inconsiderable proof of his proper and supreme Deity. Another name of God is, The Lord cs hosts; and by which he is frequently called; The portion of Jacob is not like unto them, the idols of the Gentiles, the Lord of hosts is his namer; the Lord of Sabaotb*; and James retains the Hebrew word untranslated % and our version of him •, which is not to be pronounced and understood, as ic often wrongly is, of the Lord os Sabbath ; but of the Lord of hosts, or armies, both above and below •,
< Though some renner it all-sujjicient, deriving the word iy® from 10 it.bc, and ^1 fiiff.citvt; so Drusius. God being sufficient, in, and of, and for himself, and stands in no need of any thing from his creatures; and having all-sufficiency in him, for the supply of their wants, both temporal and spiritual. Though others derive it from ~\'V a pap, or bread ; he having the blessings of the breast, or breasts of consolation for his people j fee Gen. xlix. 25. Isai Ixvi. 11. So If», Ceres, and Diana, are represented by the Heathens, as full of breasts, and called from thence Mamma/a. Thus Paschius in Disiertat. ut supra, gives the derivation of it; i~y» (quod a rad. TZ? mamma, uber, pinguedo,) dicit deum nutricium & cibatorem omnium : not to take notice of other etymologies of the word; of which fee Buxtoifu Dissert. dcNominibus Dei Hebr. S. 48.
* Isai. lix. 1. ' Exod. vi. 3.
* Dcrivatar eninn a radice ,Tn vel TTlil (nam utraquc m lingua Hebræa est ufitata) else, exiAcre —unde nW est ens existens a scipfo ab seterno, & in æternum, omnibusque aiiis extra fe eucntiam & exiitentiam communicans, Buxtorf. ut supra, S. 7. ITST (quod a radice cbr. nVJ »ut Chald. ,T)n exillit, suit, tec. derivatum) signifkat ens a, in, & per fe cssentialiffimum. Paschius ut supra.
Exod. iii. 13, 14. * Rev. i. 4.
* Qui ab kiitio se deinonflravit, & nunc demonstrat, & imposterum se demonstrabit fidelem crcatoiem, donee fiat & sit in omnibus omnia, Cocceii Lexicon, col. 177.
* Jer. x. 16. « James v. 4.
* /Tltt22L rifts' dominus exercituum, recte antem vocatur Deus, non Dcus exercitus in singolari numero, fed Deus exercituum, quia varios habet exercitus, qui ipsi parent, minislrant & militant—
visibilcs & invisibles, quibus bono piorum & malo inrpiorum utitur. & quoniam hoc solius Dei'
omnipotent!* opus cfl. Line etiam nulli creaturarum, hoc epitheton in sacris liceris tribuitur. Unde Hieronymus monuisse vicetur non csse in aliam iinguatn tranefcrendua), cum etiam apoftoli iliud son mutarint. Buxtorf. ib. S. $9, 60.
and not only of the fun, moon, and stars, sometimes called the host of heaven ; but of the angels; the heavenly militia; that multitude of the heavenly host •, part of which attended at our Lord's incarnation •, these are at h:s beck, will, and command, as well as all the hosts and armies of men on earth j for, he doth according to his will, in the armies of heaven, and among the inhabitants of the earth ; and none can stay his hand, or fay unto him, What dost thoub ? The name of the Lord God of Israel, is frequently given him in the prophetic writings, especially of Jeremiah, who often prefaces his prophecies with it; and is very properly given him ; since he chose the people of Israel, above all people, to be his special people; and distinguished them from others, by many peculiar favours ; he avouched them to be bis people ; and they avouched him to be their Cod; this was his Old Testament name and title-, and was almost out of date, as one observes c •, when Zechariah, the father of John Baptist, used it, who is the last that did ; faying, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, for he hath visited and redeemed his people*; for, quickly after, another name of his took place ; which is, his New-Testament-name and title; the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ % used by the apostles Paul and Peter. God is the God of Christ, as Christ is man-, the human nature of Christ, is a creature of God, the true tabernacle, which God pitched, and not man; and which he anointed, filled, and adorned1 with the gifts and graces of the Spirit, without measure; and Christ, as such,, loved him, as his God, and obeyed his commands, from a law of love in his heart; him he hoped in from his mother's womb ; and in him he believed, and had the strongest confidence in him, that he was near him, would help him, stand by him, and justify him; to him he prayed most fervently and frequently;, sometimes a whole night together; and gave him thanks and praise for divers things, particularly for hiding the mysteries of grace from the wise and prudent, and revealing them to babes; and was in all things obedient to his God, throughout the whole course of his life, even unto death. God is the Father of Christ,, as Christ is a divine person ; and in such sense his Facher, as he is to no other; and Christ is in such sense his Son, and in such a class of filiation and sonship, as none others are, angels, or men ;• angels are the sons of God by creation, saints by adoption: but to which of them, one or another, said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee'. Christ is- his own proper, natural Son ; of the fame nature with him ; the Son of himself; the Son of the Father, in truth and lovez; and not in an improper, figurative, and metaphorical; sense; .as magistrates, by office, are called the sons of God.
* Dan.hr. 35; « DrGoodwin, on Ephes. i. 3. p. 27; a Loke i. 68.
» *Cor. i. 3. Ephej.i. 3, 17. and Hi. 14. iPeteri. 3, f Heb. L.j,
* z John, ver. 3.
Christ: himself may be signified by the name of the Lord; in and by whom he is so clearly made known and revealed to men ; and in whom his name, his nature, and perfections are, as before observed ; and to whom belong all the same glorious names ; as the true God, God Almighty, Jehovah, the Lord of hosts, and the holy One of Israel; and who, besides these, has various precious and excellent names, worthy to be recorded. The first of these we meet with is Shilob, in the famous prophecy of Jacob, The sceptre shall not depart from Judab, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, till Shiloh comeh; who is the true Messiah ; which name, whether it has the signification of prosperous or peaceable ', it agrees with Christ; in whose hands the pleasure and will of God, respecting the salvation of men, prospered; and who succeeded in all his conflicts with sin, Satan, and the world, and got the victory over them : and he is the prince of peace; the man, the peace; with whom the covenant of peace was made; on whom the chastisement of our peace was laid, and who has made peace by the blood of his cross. His name Immanuel, given him before his birth, when prophesied of, to be born of a virgin, is a very precious one ; which is, by interpretation, God with us*; " God in our nature, God manifest in the flesh;" and through which, being made, he dwelt among men ; which is a most wonderful instance of condescending grace. Another name with which it is said he should be called is, the Lord our righteousness', because, as a surety, he undertook to bring in everlasting righteousness •, and, therefore, it became him to fulfil all righteousness : and for this purpose, he came in the likeness of sinful flesh, to obey the law in our nature, and condemn sin in the flesh, by the sacrifice of himself, that the righteousness of the law might be completely fulfilled in us; and he is become the fulfilling end of the law for righteousness, to every one that believes; and to whom he is also made righteousness, and they made the righteousness of God in him: and, not to forget that delightful mmz of Jesus, given to him because hesaves his people from their sins; nor Messiah, which signifies Christ, or Anointed; he being anointed as prophet, priest, and king, with the oil os gladness, the holy Ghost, and his grace, above his fellows; and from whom the faints receive the unction, that anointing, which teaches all things, and are denominated christians. To this name of Christ the church seems to allude, when she says, Thy name is as ointment poured forth, therefore do the virgins love thee m.
h Gen xlix. 10. 1 Si!ohj quia prir.ceps pacis, Isai. ix. 6. præstans etiam pacem, ab accusatione Se jogo legis. quam scilicet legiflatores imponere poterant. Cocceii Lexic. col. 898. ilbll? fignisicat quietus, tranquillus suit; item, Salvus, fcl:x, sortunatus suit, prospere & seliciter egit; hinc alii ,~ITW aiunt
notare. pacificum, quietum alii feliccm, cumque maxime talem quod nomine Heroit felicis
indicart videntur. Valand. Dissert, ad Gen. xlix. 10. apud Thesaur. Theolog. Philol. vol. I. p. 273. k Matt. i. 23. ' Jer. xxiii. 6. m Cant. i. 3.
5. The name of the Lord sometimes designs the gospel; as, when Christ soys to his divine Father, / have manifested thy name unto the men which theu gavest me out of the world"; that is, his mind and will, which he revealed unto bis disciples, having lain in his bosom, and being fully acquainted with it j the mysteries of his love and grace, which lay hid in his heart; the several doctrines of grace and truth, which relate to the great design of God in man's salvation, and came from God by him ; for, this he afterwards explains, by saying, / have given unto them the words which thou gaveft me °; namely, the words of eternal life, or the doctrines respecting the everlasting welfare and salvation of men : so the Lord said to Ananias, concerning the apostle Paul, He is a chosen vessel unto me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and Kings, and the children of Israelp; which was no other, than to carry the gospel, and spread it, not only in Judea, but in the Gentile world ; and abide by it, and continue preaching it; and bear a testimony to it, in the face of all opposition, from men of every rank, and of every nation. Now, from all this we may learn, in some measure, what we are to understand by the name of the Lord -, which may be taken in the most comprehensive sense ; as to include himself, his nature, and perfections, and every appellation by which he is manifested and known; his son, his person, offices, and grace, and all things relating to him ; the gospel, and the various doctrines of it: all which, as they serve to celebrate the praise and glory of God, they are to be recorded and remembered in every place, where the worship of God is sec up; which leads me to observe,
Secondly, What is meant by the Lord's recording his name, or causing it to be remembered ; for so the words may be rendered, Where I make mention of my name, or where I cause to remember my name; or, you to remember itq; that is, cause it to be remembered, or refresh the memories of men with it: which is done by appointing and setting up memorials of it.
1st, Under the legal dispensation, this was done by ordering the ark, mercyfeat, and cherubim, to be made, and to be placed first in the tabernacle, and then in the temple. These were symbols of the divine presence; here the Shekinah, or the divine Majesty, took up its abode; from hence God communed with men, and gave them intimations of his mind and will; by which they were put in mind of him, and directed where to apply to him, in every time of need ; and so possessed were the Israelites of this notion, that God was where these were, that they would sometimes take the ark with them when they went to battlej promising themselves thereby protection, safety, and victory.
And And these were, each of them, the ark and the mercy-seat, memorials of Christ, and served to put such as had knowledge of the Messiah, true faith in him, and expectation of his coming, in mind of him.
n John xvii 6. <> John xvii. 8. P Acts ix 1 y.
' 1121!) nH TOTN "INStf quo memorare saciara nomen meum Pagninus, Monranus Quocunque in loco monimentum constitueio nominis mei. Heb. in omni loco ubi recordari faciam nomen meum, feu, ubi faciam ut recordemini nominis mei. Piscator. Vel, faciam ves recordaii nomen meum. Cartwright. So Ainsworth.
The ark was a type of Christ, in the matter, form, and use Of it; it was made <of Shittim wood, and overlayed with pure gold, denoting the incorruption, purity, glory, excellency, and duration of Christ; its principal use was, to contain in it the testimony of the will of God, the two tables of stone, with the law of the ten commandments on them; which were renewed by the Lord, after they were broken by falling out of the hands of Moses, as he came down from the mount, when the people had finned, and transgressed this law. The putting of that into the ark, signified the law being not only in the hands, but in the heart of Christ ; his voluntary subjection to it •, his perfect fulfilment of it, whereby it was magnified, and made honourablej all its demands being answered by him, its precepts obeyed, and its sanction yielded to; and in whom it is preserved and continued, in all its perfection and lustre, and remains in full force, to answer the purposes for which it was given.
The mercy feat is also a type of Christ, and a memorial of him ; bringing him to remembrance, and refreshing the minds of true believers in him j leading them to some delightful views of the grace and mercy of God, as displayed in him. The same word which the Greek interpreters render the Hebrew word by, for the mercy-scat, is used by the apostle Paul concerning Christ, when he fays of him, whom Gcd hath jet forth to be a propitiation \ tX*s-Dp»e», " a mercy•* seat." This was over the ark, in which the law was, a cover to it; and of the fame length and breadth with it; (hewing that Christ's obedience and propitiatory sacrifice, are commensurate to the law, and its requirements, and a covering of all the sins of God's people, for whom this sacrifice is offered, which are transgressions of the law, and through which God is gracious and merciful to sinners ; for, though he has proclaimed his name, a God gracious and merciful, it is only in Christ-, the special mercy of God is only communicated through Christ j there is no mercy to be expected but by him ; the poor publican was in the right, when he prayed, God be merciful, ix««rJ»T» or be propitious, or shew mercy through the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ, to me a/inner', The stores of mercy are laid up in Christ; it is for him, for his fake, and with him, that he keeps his mercy, his covenant-grace and mercy, for evermore': he is the throne of grace, or the mercy-scat, to which the saints should have recourse in all their times of need; and where, and where only, they may expect to find grace, and obtain mercy' j yea, it is to this mercy-seat, to the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ* and for it, and to the mercy of God, displayed in him, they are to look for, and unto eternal life w . •
' Rom. iii. 25. * Luke xviii. 13. * Psalm bcxxix. 2V. ' Heb.iv. 16.
Moreover, the altar, and the sacrifices offered on it, were typical of Christ, and memorials of him, and the means of recording the name of the Lord, and causing it to be remembered *; the altar was a type of Christ, as before observed •, both the altar of burnt-offering, and the altar of incense ; the one served to put believers in mind of the sacrifice and satisfaction of Christ for sin ; and the dolorous sufferings he underwent on that account, under a fense of the wrath of God, and to deliver his people from it, by bearing it in their room and stead, when he became a whole burnt-offering for them ; and the other was of use, to . observe unto them the intercession of Christ, founded on his propitiatory sacrifice; through whose much incense, or all prevailing mediation, the prayers of the saints become acceptable untoGod, and the Nestings of grace are brought down upon them, and applied to them. The various sacrifices offered at the Jewish altar, were typical of the sacrifice of Christ •, and were designed to put the sacrificers in miad of it, and to lead their fa th to it, without which theirs were unacceptable to God. The lambs of the daily sacrifice, in the morning and evening, were remembrancers of Christ the Lamb of God, who taketb, continually takes away the sins of men, committed by them. So the flaying of the paffbver-lamb, the burning of the red heifer, with all other sacrifices, whether offered every day, every month, or every year-, they all pointed at Christ, and his sacrifice, whereby he his put away Jin, and perfected for ever them that are sanctified: and now, by appointing and continuing these, Jehovah caused his name to be remembered ; whose perfections were displayed and glorified in the sacrifice of his Son ; to which the faith of his people were by these directed.
zdly, Under the gospel-dispensation, God records his name by the ministry of the word, and by the administration of ordinances.
1. By the word, and by the ministers of it-, whose descriptive character is, that make mention of the Lordr; or cause him to be remembered, or are his remembrancers ; which is much the fame phrase that is here used : a principal part of their business is, to admonish -, to be the monitors of men-, to put them in mind, as the word used signifiesr; to put them in mind of their privileges and duties-, to put them in mind of the grace of God, and the blessings of it; of Christ, his person, offices, and grace, and of the several doctrines of the everlasting gospel, for their comfort and edification. So the apostle Peter determined, whilst he was in this tabernacle, in the body, in the present state of things, so long as he remained in the world, toy?/> up the saints, by putting them*« remembrance of these things, though they knew them, and were established Vol. I. I i in in them1; 'and then may the ministers of the gospel be said to record the name of the Lord, and the Lord to record it, by them ; or cause it to be remembered,, when,
w Jude, ver. 21. * See Mede's works, B. II. p. 341. ' Isai. Ixii. 6.
2 i These, v. 1 z. Fbsitshtij.
( i.) They put those in mind, to whom they minister, of the love, grace, and mercy of God, displayed in salvation by Jesus Christ; when, as God has proclaimed his name, " a God gracious and merciful, abundant in goodness and truth, forgiving iniquity, and transgression, and fin;" they also publish and proclaim the same grace and mercy of his, as it is shewn forth in the several parts and branches of salvation ; or, in other words, when they ascribe salvation, both in whole and in part, to the free grace and sovereign mercy of God in Christ* For instance, when they declare, that God's choice of men to holiness- here, and: happiness hereafter, is wholly owing to his everlasting love, and sovereign wiU and pleasure; when they assert there is such an act in God; and that this. is. eternal; that it pasted before men had done either good or evil,, and had no respect to either ; that the moving cause of it, are not the faith, or holiness, or obedience, and good works of men; nor the foresight of any, or either of them •, that it does not stand upon the works of man, but upon the will of God ; and therefore truly called the election of grace; and which the apostle most clearly evinces, by arguing in such a strong and nervous manner about it; if by grace, then is it no more of-works^ otherwise grace is »# more grace; but if it be of works, then is it no more grace; otherwise work is no more work*. Likewise-, when they attribute the mission of Christ into this world, in order to obtain salvation for men, purely to the good-will, grace, and mercy of God, as the scriptures do; which assure us, that it is owing to the tender mercy of our God, his bowels of compassion to sinful, miserable creatures, that the day-spring from on high, the Messiah, the Sun of righteousness, whose rising, and coming here, made the glorious gospel-day, has visited usc; by the beamings-forth of his sove and grace, in the assumption of our nature •, by sending forth, the light of truth abroad in the world •, and dispelling the darkness of error, ignorance, and infidelity ; the design of whose appearance was not merely to deliver a system of doctrines, and to recommend them by his own example, but to suffer and die for us ; and, by so doing, redeem us from sin and death, and everlasting ruin : and, his coming on such an errand, is entirely the fruit and effectof divine love; God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, and sent him into the world, to be the propitiation, Saviour, and Redeemer; and in this the love of God is manifested to us ; herein is love *; this is a full proof and demonstration of it; and it appears the more illustrious and free, when it is observed, the persons that God gave his Son for, into the hands of justice, and death, and Christ died, for, are represented, not only as without strength, but as ungodly, sinners, and enemies in their minds, by wicked works.
1 2 Peter i. 12, 13. b Rom. xi. 5, 6. c Luke i, 78. * Johniii. 16. iJoJmiv. 9,10.
Now, when the love, grace, and mercy of God, in this instance, are published, then is the name of the Lord proclaimed and recorded, as a God gracious and merciful Also, when the blessings of justification, and pardon of fin, are referred to the fame source and Origin, spring and'fountain, even the unmerited grace of God in Christ; for, though upon the account of the righteousness of Christ, and the imputation of it, God is just, whilst he is the jufiifier os him that believes in Jesus ; and as justification proceeds upon, and through the redemption that is in Christ; yet this hinders not but that \% freely by the grace of God c; for it is grace that provided this righteousness, accepts of it, and imputes it; and it is the free gift of God to man ; and so is faith itself, which receives it-, ungodly men are justified by it; and this is imputed, without works, unto them : and then is the grace of God, in this article, exalted and magnified, when it is roundly declared, for which there is the greatest authority, that by the deeds of the law, no man is, or can be justified; but that justification is by faith in Chrijl's righteousness, without the works of it. And so pardon of fin, though through the blood of Christ, which was stied for it, it is an act of justice in God to forgive it: and he is just and faithful in doing it, on that account; yet it is according to the riches of his grace, and the multitude of bis tender mercies', that he forgives sin, even for Christ's fake : and then is the name of the Lord recorded, when forgiveness of sin is preached in the name of Christ; and the name of God is published and proclaimed, aGod ■forgiving iniquity, and transgression, and sin, freely and fully, on his account. la short, this is done, when salvation is asserted to be not according to mens •works, but according to the purpose and grace of God-, when it is affirmed, -that it is not by works of righteousness the best men have done, and in the best manner, they are saved ; but by the abundant mercy of God, through Christ ; that ■it is by grace alone that salvation is, and not by works, lest any should boast ; and that it is through faith; and that not of ourselves, for it is the gift of God. In a word-, the name of Gcd is recorded, when not the merits of men, but the mercy of God, is magnified; when not free-will, but free grace, is preached; when salvation is said to be, not tf him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God, that Jhewetb mercy; when regeneration is ascribed, not to the might and power of man, but to the Spirit of the Lord of hosts -, when men are taught to attribute all they have, and are, and do, to the grace of God ^ and to fay with the apostle, by the grace of God I am what I am%; and when it is the drift of the ministry, and the concern of those in it, to display the riches of divine grace, and the glory of it; which is the ultimate end of God in the predestination, redemption, and salvation of men.
c Rom. iii. 24—26. * 1 John i. 9 Ephes. i. 7. Psalm li. 1.
* 1 Cor. xv. 10.
2. Then do ministers of the word record, make mention of, and cause to be remembered, the name of the Lord; and God does it by them, when they preach Christ, and him crucified, as God's alone way of salvation. This was the course the first ministers of the gospel steered ; they preached not themselves ; as they did not seek themselves, so neither did they exalt themlelves and others ; they did not preach up the purity of human nature, the power of man's free-will, the sufficiency of good works to justify before God, and to render acceptable in his sight-, but Christ Jesus the Lordb, as the only redeemer and saviour of lost sinners. Particularly, this was the resolution and determination of the great apostle of the Gentiles: for so he fays, writing to the Corinthians, I determined to know ; that is, to make known, nothing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified'; meaning, in the great affair and business of salvation; and this determination he abode by, notwithstanding all the opposition made unto him, and contempt that was cast on him for it: We preach, fays he, Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling-block, and to the Greeks foolishness a. Thus did he, and other preachers of the gospel, record the name of the Lord to good purpose wherever they came; and so do all such who make mention in their ministry of the glorious person of Christ, zsGod over all blessed for ever; as the true God, and eternal life; a* the brightness os his Father's glory, and the express image of his person ; whose glory is the glory of the only-begotten of the Father; being in the glorious form, and having all the glorious perfections of deity in him. When they describe him as theGod-man, as white and ruddy, the chiefest among ten thousands, rnd altogether lovely in his person and offices; when they speak of him, and direct unto him as the only mediator between God and man; in whom the saints art blessed with allspiritual blessings; through whom they have a participation of all grace here, and have both a right unto, and meetness for, eternal glory hereafter; who is now the way of access to the father, and of acceptance with him; and by whom all the sacrifices of prayer and praise are to be offered toGod, and become acceptable to him ; as well as he will be the medium of all that glory that shall be enjoyed hereafter : then also do they record the name of the Lord, and he by them, when they declare there is no other name given among men whereby they must be saved, than the name os Christ; that there is salvation in none but him; that it is in vain to hope for it in the multitude of hills and mountains, or from mens works, be they ever so many, even though they were piled upas mountains aiming at heaven, and seeking to reach it: and when this is the subject of their ministry, the faithful saying, and worthy os all acceptation, that Jesus Christ came into the world to save sinners ; of whom, says the apostle, / am chief.
* 2 Cor. iv. 5. c 1 Cor. ii. 3, * 1 Cor. i. 13. • 1 Tim. i. !$•
When also they make mention of the righteousness of Christ, and him only, as the matter of a sinner's justification before God; when they preach, that through Christ and his righteousness believers are justified from all things they could not be by the law of Moses, and obedience to it: and then may they be said to turn many to righteousness '; or to justify many, that is, by guiding and directing them alone to Christ for righteousness: likewise when they speak well of the precious blood of Christ, and direct fouls to deal with it, for the remission of their fins; and shew that both justification and fanctification are through it; that peace and reconciliation are made by it; and a way is opened by means of it, into the holy of holies: moreover, when they exalt the sacrifice of Christ, and observe that all others, let them be of what nature they will among men, yet are insufficient to atone for sin ; even thousands of rams, or ten thousand rivers of oil; yea, though the first-born should be given for transgression, and the fruit of the body for the fin of the soul; and that Christ's sacrifice alone has taken away fin ; made an end of it, and made reconciliation for it; and that Christ, the Lamb of God, is only to be looked unto as the sin-bearing, and sin-atoning Saviour: To which may be added, that this is the cafe, when the advocacy of Christ is preached up; or he is represented as the advocate with the Father ; who appears in the presence of God, and ever lives to make intercession for his people ; introduces their persons into the presence of his Father ;. presents their petitions, and pleads for the blessings of grace to be applied to them they want; and the supplies of grace to be granted them they stand in need of. To fay no more, then do faithful dispensers of the word record the name of the Lord, and he by them, when they preach the pure gospel of Christ free, unmixed, and unadulterated; when they do not corrupt the word, but sincerely preach it, as in the sight of God and Christ ; when their ministry is not yea and nay, but all of a piece; consistent with itself, and with the word of God ; when the trumpet does not give an uncertain found ; when only the joyful found is heard ; peace, pardon, righteousness and salvation, are clearly,, openly, without reserve or disguise, published and proclaimed.
2. Under the gospel-dispensation God records his name, by appointing ordinances, and by the administration of them, as memorials of his love and grace ; and particularly the ordinance of the Lord's-supper; and where that is truly administered, and carefully attended to, and the design of it answered, there the name of the Lord is caused to be remembered ; and the memories of men are sweetly and comfortably refreshed with it. This ordinance is a commemorative ordinance, causing to remember, or bringing to remembrance. The design of it is to put in mind of the love of God and Christ ; of the love of God in the gift of his Son, and of the love of Christ in the gift of himself; and it is hard to fay which.is the greatest instance of love, for God to gfve his Son, his only begotten Son, or for Christ to give himself, his foul and body, and both in union tvith his divine person ; to lay down his life, to shed his blood, to offer himself a sacrifice unto God for us.
only f Dan. xii. j.
The ordinance of the supper brings to our remembrance the love of the Father in providing his Son a lamb for a burntoffering ; in sending him into this world to be a Saviour of his people; in not sparing him, but delivering him up into the hands of justice and death for us all j and all this, when and while we were sinners. It refreshes our memories with the love of Christ, in giving himself an offering and a sacrifice unto God, of a sweet-smelling savour. It is not a reiteration of the sacrifice, an offering up again the body and blood of Christ; but a commemoration of it, and of the love of Christ in it: Hereby we perceive his love to us. It is very plain and evident that he laid down his life for us; it leads us to observe it as such an instance of love that is not to be found among men. Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends%. But Christ has shewn greater love than this, by laying down his life for his enemies. Now, the elements or symbols in the Lord's-fupper, the bread and wine, are memorials of what Christ has done and suffered for his people; of his body being bruised and broken for them; of his blood being shed, and his foul poured out unto death on their account; and of his being stricken and smitten for their transgressions, and wounded for their fins; and of his bearing them and the punishment due unto them ; and when the bread is eaten and the wine drank; they are both to be done by Out Lord's direction, in remembrance of him, and of the above things, and of his love in all: and then is his name recorded, when his love is remembered more than winek; when saints call upon their fouls, and all within them, to bless his holy name, and not forget his benefits'; especially the redemption of their lives from destruction by him. Now,
Thirdly, The places which God has a regard to, and where his people should meet and worship him, are where his name is recorded : This appears from what has been said. They are such where his free grace is set forth, magnified and exalted in the salvation of men; where Christ crucified is preached, and the ordinances are truly and faithfully administered : and when this is the case, ic matters not what or where they are. Under the former dispensation there were particular places for worship, namely, wherever the tabernacle and ark were, and especially the city of Jerusalem, where the temple was built. But now we are not obliged to go to Shiloh, or Gilgal, or Jerusalem. The only descriptive character which points out a place to us, and directs us where to go and worship, is where the Lord records his name; or his ministers record it, by faithfully preaching his gospel, and administering his ordinances: and these are not limited and restrained to any place.
limited * John xv. 13. b Cant. i. 3, ' Psalm tin. t—4.
It matters not whether the edifice we worship in, is greater or smaller, built in a less or more pompous manner; nor what names it is called by; whether a meeting-house, church, or chapel; a conventicle, or a cathedral: the only point is, is the name of the Lord recorded there ? For we find under the gospel-dispensation, the word has been used to be preached indifferently any where. Thus we may observe at one time, that our Lord sat upon a mountain, and delivered those excellent discourses contained in the fifth, sixth, and seventh chapters of Matthew. At another time he sat in a ship, and taught the multitude as they stood on the shore. And elsewhere we read of him preaching in a private house; as well as he sometimes went into the temple, the then public place of worship ; and sat and taught there \ And so his apostles and disciples not only preached in the synagogues of the Jews as they had opportunity, but in other places not used before for religious worship. The apostle Paul disputed and discoursed in the school, of Tyrannus, and continued this practice for the space of two years there-, so that all Asia had the opportunity of hearing the word of the Lord : And he also was two other whole years in his own hired house at Rome, preaching the kingdom of God, and the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ'. I should now have entered on the second general head, but the consideration of »hat must be left to the afternoon.
* Mate, v, 1. and ziii. 2. Mark ii. 1, 2. John viii. z.
1 AiH xix. 9. and xtviii. 30, 3K