The Corinthians reproved for their contentions. (1-4) The true servants of Christ can do nothing without him. (5-9) He is the only foundation, and every one should take heed what he builds thereon. (10-15) The churches of Christ ought to be kept pure, and to be humble. (16,17) And they should not glory in men, because ministers and all things else are theirs through Christ. (18-23)
Verses 1-4 The most simple truths of the gospel, as to man's sinfulness and God's mercy, repentance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, stated in the plainest language, suit the people better than deeper mysteries. Men may have much doctrinal knowledge, yet be mere beginners in the life of faith and experience. Contentions and quarrels about religion are sad evidences of carnality. True religion makes men peaceable, not contentious. But it is to be lamented, that many who should walk as Christians, live and act too much like other men. Many professors, and preachers also, show themselves to be yet carnal, by vain-glorious strife, eagerness for dispute, and readiness to despise and speak evil of others.
Verses 5-9 The ministers about whom the Corinthians contended, were only instruments used by God. We should not put ministers into the place of God. He that planteth and he that watereth are one, employed by one Master, trusted with the same revelation, busied in one work, and engaged in one design. They have their different gifts from one and the same Spirit, for the very same purposes; and should carry on the same design heartily. Those who work hardest shall fare best. Those who are most faithful shall have the greatest reward. They work together with God, in promoting the purposes of his glory, and the salvation of precious souls; and He who knows their work, will take care they do not labour in vain. They are employed in his husbandry and building; and He will carefully look over them.
Verses 10-15 The apostle was a wise master-builder; but the grace of God made him such. Spiritual pride is abominable; it is using the greatest favours of God, to feed our own vanity, and make idols of ourselves. But let every man take heed; there may be bad building on a good foundation. Nothing must be laid upon it, but what the foundation will bear, and what is of a piece with it. Let us not dare to join a merely human or a carnal life with a Divine faith, the corruption of sin with the profession of Christianity. Christ is a firm, abiding, and immovable Rock of ages, every way able to bear all the weight that God himself or the sinner can lay upon him; neither is there salvation in any other. Leave out the doctrine of his atonement, and there is no foundation for our hopes. But of those who rest on this foundation, there are two sorts. Some hold nothing but the truth as it is in Jesus, and preach nothing else. Others build on the good foundation what will not abide the test, when the day of trail comes. We may be mistaken in ourselves and others; but there is a day coming that will show our actions in the true light, without covering or disguise. Those who spread true and pure religion in all its branches, and whose work will abide in the great day, shall receive a reward. And how great! how much exceeding their deserts! There are others, whose corrupt opinions and doctrines, or vain inventions and usages in the worship of God, shall be made known, disowned, and rejected, in that day. This is plainly meant of a figurative fire, not of a real one; for what real fire can consume religious rites or doctrines? And it is to try every man's works, those of Paul and Apollos, as well as others. Let us consider the tendency of our undertakings, compare them with God's word, and judge ourselves, that we be not judged of the Lord.
Verses 16-17 From other parts of the epistle, it appears that the false teachers among the Corinthians taught unholy doctrines. Such teaching tended to corrupt, to pollute, and destroy the building, which should be kept pure and holy for God. Those who spread loose principles, which render the church of God unholy, bring destruction upon themselves. Christ by his Spirit dwells in all true believers. Christians are holy by profession, and should be pure and clean, both in heart and conversation. He is deceived who deems himself the temple of the Holy Ghost, yet is unconcerned about personal holiness, or the peace and purity of the church.
Verses 18-23 To have a high opinion of our own wisdom, is but to flatter ourselves; and self-flattery is the next step to self-deceit. The wisdom that wordly men esteem, is foolishness with God. How justly does he despise, and how easily can he baffle and confound it! The thoughts of the wisest men in the world, have vanity, weakness, and folly in them. All this should teach us to be humble, and make us willing to be taught of God, so as not to be led away, by pretences to human wisdom and skill, from the simple truths revealed by Christ. Mankind are very apt to oppose the design of the mercies of God. Observe the spiritual riches of a true believer; "All are yours," even ministers and ordinances. Nay, the world itself is yours. Saints have as much of it as Infinite Wisdom sees fit for them, and they have it with the Divine blessing. Life is yours, that you may have a season and opportunity to prepare for the life of heaven; and death is yours, that you may go to the possession of it. It is the kind messenger to take you from sin and sorrow, and to guide you to your Father's house. Things present are yours, for your support on the road; things to come are yours, to delight you for ever at your journey's end. If we belong to Christ, and are true to him, all good belongs to us, and is sure to us. Believers are the subjects of his kingdom. He is Lord over us, we must own his dominion, and cheerfully submit to his command. God in Christ, reconciling a sinful world to himself, and pouring the riches of his grace on a reconciled world, is the sum and substance of the gospel.
1 Corinthians 3:1-23 . PAUL COULD NOT SPEAK TO THEM OF DEEP SPIRITUAL TRUTHS, AS THEY WERE CARNAL, CONTENDING FOR THEIR SEVERAL TEACHERS; THESE ARE NOTHING BUT WORKERS FOR GOD, TO WHOM THEY MUST GIVE ACCOUNT IN THE DAY OF FIERY JUDGMENT. THE HEARERS ARE GOD'S TEMPLE, WHICH THEY MUST NOT DEFILE BY CONTENTIONS FOR TEACHERS, WHO, AS WELL AS ALL THINGS, ARE THEIRS, BEING CHRIST'S.
1. And I--that is, as the natural (animal) man cannot receive, so I also could not speak unto you the deep things of God, as I would to the spiritual; but I was compelled to speak to you as I would to MEN OF FLESH. The oldest manuscripts read this for "carnal." The former (literally, "fleshy") implies men wholly of flesh, or natural. Carnal, or fleshly, implies not they were wholly natural or unregenerate ( 1 Corinthians 2:14 ), but that they had much of a carnal tendency; for example their divisions. Paul had to speak to them as he would to men wholly natural, inasmuch as they are still carnal ( 1 Corinthians 3:3 ) in many respects, notwithstanding their conversion ( 1 Corinthians 1:4-9 ).
babes--contrasted with the perfect (fully matured) in Christ ( Colossians 1:28 ; compare Hebrews 5:13 Hebrews 5:14 ). This implies they were not men wholly of flesh, though carnal in tendencies. They had life in Christ, but it was weak. He blames them for being still in a degree (not altogether, compare 1 Corinthians 1:5 1 Corinthians 1:7 ; therefore he says as) babes in Christ, when by this time they ought to have "come unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ" ( Ephesians 4:13 ). In Romans 7:14 , also the oldest manuscripts read, "I am a man of flesh."
2. ( Hebrews 5:12 ).
milk--the elementary "principles of the doctrine of Christ."
3. envying--jealousy, rivalry. As this refers to their feelings, "strife" refers to their words, and "divisions" to their actions [BENGEL]. There is a gradation, or ascending climax: envying had produced strife, and strife divisions (factious parties) [GROTIUS]. His language becomes severer now as He proceeds; in 1 Corinthians 1:11 he had only said "contentions," he now multiplies the words (compare the stronger term, 1 Corinthians 4:6 , than in 1 Corinthians 3:21 ).
carnal--For "strife" is a "work of the flesh" ( Galatians 5:20 ). The "flesh" includes all feelings that aim not at the glory of God, and the good of our neighbor, but at gratifying self.
walk as men--as unregenerate men (compare Matthew 16:23 ). "After the flesh, not after the Spirit" of God, as becomes you as regenerate by the Spirit ( Romans 8:4 , Galatians 5:25 Galatians 5:26 ).
4. ( 1 Corinthians 1:12 ).
are ye not carnal--The oldest manuscripts read, "Are ye not men?" that is, "walking as men" unregenerate ( 1 Corinthians 3:3 ).
5. Who then--Seeing then that ye severally strive so for your favorite teachers, "Who is (of what intrinsic power and dignity) Paul?" If so great an apostle reasons so of himself, how much more does humility, rather than self-seeking, become ordinary ministers!
Paul . . . Apollos--The oldest manuscripts read in the reverse order, "Apollos," &c. Paul." He puts Apollos before himself in humility.
but ministers, &c.--The oldest manuscripts have no "but." "Who is Apollos . . . Paul? (mere) ministers (a lowly word appropriate here, servants), by whom (not "in whom"; by whose ministrations) ye believed."
as . . . Lord gave to every man--that is, to the several hearers, for it was GOD that "gave the increase" ( 1 Corinthians 3:6 ).
6. I . . . planted, Apollos watered--( Acts 18:1 , 19:1 ). Apollos at his own desire ( Acts 18:27 ) was sent by the brethren to Corinth, and there followed up the work which Paul had begun.
God gave the increase--that is, the growth ( 1 Corinthians 3:10 , Acts 18:27 ). "Believed through grace." Though ministers are nothing, and God all in all, yet God works by instruments, and promises the Holy Spirit in the faithful use of means. This is the dispensation of the Spirit, and ours is the ministry of the Spirit.
7. neither is he that . . . anything . . . but God--namely, is all in all. "God" is emphatically last in the Greek, "He that giveth the increase (namely), GOD." Here follows a parenthesis, 1 Corinthians 3:8-21 , where "Let no man glory in men" stands in antithetic contrast to "God" here.
8. one--essentially in their aim they are one, engaged in one and the same ministry; therefore they ought not to be made by you the occasion of forming separate parties.
and every man--rather "but every man." Though in their service or ministry, they are essentially "one," yet every minister is separately responsible in "his own" work, and "shall receive his own (emphatically repeated) reward, according to his own labor." The reward is something over and above personal salvation ( 1 Corinthians 3:14 1 Corinthians 3:15 , 2 John 1:8 ). He shall be rewarded according to, not his success or the amount of work done, but "according to his own labor." It shall be said to him, "Well done, thou good and (not successful, but) faithful servant, enter thou into the joy of thy Lord" ( Matthew 25:23 ).
9. Translate, as the Greek collocation of words, and the emphasis on "God" thrice repeated, requires, "For (in proof that "each shall receive reward according to his own labor," namely, from God) it is of God that we are the fellow workers (laboring with, but under, and belonging to Him as His servants, 2 Corinthians 5:20 , 6:1 ; compare Acts 15:4 ; of God that ye are the field (or tillage), of God that ye are the building" [ALFORD]. "Building" is a new image introduced here, as suited better than that of husbandry, to set forth the different kinds of teaching and their results, which he is now about to discuss. "To edify" or "build up" the Church of Christ is similarly used ( Ephesians 2:21 Ephesians 2:22 , 4:29 ).
10. grace . . . given unto me--Paul puts this first, to guard against seeming to want humility, in pronouncing himself "a WISE master builder," in the clause following [CHRYSOSTOM]. The "grace" is that "given" to him in common with all Christians ( 1 Corinthians 3:5 ), only proportioned to the work which God had for him to do [ALFORD].
wise--that is, skilful. His skill is shown in his laying a foundation. The unskilful builder lays none ( Luke 6:49 ). Christ is the foundation ( 1 Corinthians 3:11 ).
another--who ever comes after me. He does not name Apollos; for he speaks generally of all successors, whoever they be. His warning, "Let every man (every teacher) take heed how," &c. refers to other successors rather than Apollos, who doubtless did not, as they, build wood, hay, &c., on the foundation (compare 1 Corinthians 4:15 ). "I have done my part, let them who follow me see (so the Greek for 'take heed') to theirs" [BENGEL].
how--with what material [ALFORD]. How far wisely, and in builder-like style ( 1 Peter 4:11 ).
buildeth thereupon--Here the building or superstructure raised on Christ the "foundation," laid by Paul ( 1 Corinthians 2:2 ) is not, as in Ephesians 2:20 Ephesians 2:21 , the Christian Church made up of believers, the "lively stones" ( 1 Peter 2:5 ), but the doctrinal and practical teaching which the teachers who succeeded Paul, superadded to his first teaching; not that they taught what was false, but their teaching was subtle and speculative reasoning, rather than solid and simple truth.
11. ( Isaiah 28:16 , Acts 4:12 , Ephesians 2:20 ).
For--my warning ("take heed," &c. 1 Corinthians 3:10 ) is as to the superstructure ("buildeth thereupon"), not as to the foundation: "For other foundation can no man lay, than that which has (already) been laid (by God) Jesus Christ," the person, not the mere abstract doctrine about Him, though the latter also is included; Jesus, GOD-SAVIOUR; Christ, MESSIAH or ANOINTED.
can--A man can not lay any other, since the only one recognized by God has been already laid.
12. Now--rather, "But." The image is that of a building on a solid foundation, and partly composed of durable and precious, partly of perishable, materials. The "gold, silver, precious stones," which all can withstand fire ( Revelation 21:18 Revelation 21:19 ), are teachings that will stand the fiery test of judgment; "wood, hay, stubble," are those which cannot stand it; not positive heresy, for that would destroy the foundation, but teaching mixed up with human philosophy and Judaism, curious rather than useful. Besides the teachings, the superstructure represents also the persons cemented to the Church by them, the reality of whose conversion, through the teachers' instrumentality, will be tested at the last day. Where there is the least grain of real gold of faith, it shall never be lost ( 1 Peter 1:7 ; compare 1 Corinthians 4:12 ). On the other hand, the lightest straw feeds the fire [BENGEL] ( Matthew 5:19 ).
13. Every man's work--each teacher's superstructure on the foundation.
the day--of the Lord ( 1 Corinthians 1:8 , Hebrews 10:25 , 1 Thessalonians 5:4 ). The article is emphatic, "The day," that is, the great day of days, the long expected day.
declare it--old English for "make it clear" ( 1 Corinthians 4:4 ).
it shall be revealed by fire--it, that is, "every man's work." Rather, "He," the Lord, whose day it is ( 2 Thessalonians 1:7 2 Thessalonians 1:8 ). Translate literally, "is being revealed (the present in the Greek implies the certainty and nearness of the event, Revelation 22:10 Revelation 22:20 ) in fire" ( Malachi 3:3 , 4:1 ). The fire (probably figurative here, as the gold, hay, &c.). is not purgatory (as Rome teaches, that is, purificatory and punitive), but probatory, not restricted to those dying in "venial sin"; the supposed intermediate class between those entering heaven at once, and those dying in mortal sin who go to hell, but universal, testing the godly and ungodly alike ( 2 Corinthians 5:10 ; compare Mark 9:49 ). This fire is not till the last day, the supposed fire of purgatory begins at death. The fire of Paul is to try the works, the fire of purgatory the persons, of men. Paul's fire causes "loss" to the sufferers; Rome's purgatory, great gain, namely, heaven at last to those purged by it, if only it were true. Thus this passage, quoted by Rome for, is altogether against, purgatory. "It was not this doctrine that gave rise to prayers for the dead; but the practice of praying for the dead [which crept in from the affectionate but mistaken solicitude of survivors] gave rise to the doctrine" [WHATELY].
14. abide--abide the testing fire ( Matthew 3:11 Matthew 3:12 ).
which he hath built thereupon--which he built on the foundation.
reward--wages, as a builder, that is, teacher. His converts built on Christ the foundation, through his faithful teaching, shall be his "crown of rejoicing" ( 2 Corinthians 1:14 , Philippians 2:16 , 1 Thessalonians 2:19 ).
15. If . . . be burnt--if any teacher's work consist of such materials as the fire will destroy [ALFORD].
suffer loss--that is, forfeit the special "reward"; not that he shall lose salvation (which is altogether a free gift, not a "reward" or wages), for he remains still on the foundation ( 1 Corinthians 3:12 , 2 John 1:6 ).
saved; yet so as by fire--rather, "so as through fire" ( Zechariah 3:2 , Amos 4:11 , Jude 1:23 ). "Saved, yet not without fire" ( Romans 2:27 ) [BENGEL]. As a builder whose building, not the foundation, is consumed by fire, escapes, but with the loss of his work [ALFORD]; as the shipwrecked merchant, though he has lost his merchandise, is saved, though having to pass through the waves [BENGEL]; Malachi 3:1 Malachi 3:2 , 4:1 , give the key to explain the imagery. The "Lord suddenly coming to His temple" in flaming "fire," all the parts of the building which will not stand that fire will be consumed; the builders will escape with personal salvation, but with the loss of their work, through the midst of the conflagration [ALFORD]. Again, a distinction is recognized between minor and fundamental doctrines (if we regard the superstructure as representing the doctrines superadded to the elementary essentials); a man may err as to the former, and yet be saved, but not so as to the latter (compare Philippians 3:15 ).
16. Know ye not--It is no new thing I tell you, in calling you "God's building"; ye know and ought to remember, ye are the noblest kind of building, "the temple of God."
ye--all Christians form together one vast temple. The expression is not, "ye are temples," but "ye are the temple" collectively, and "lively stones" ( 1 Peter 2:5 ) individually.
God . . . Spirit--God's indwelling, and that of the Holy Spirit, are one; therefore the Holy Spirit is God. No literal "temple" is recognized by the New Testament in the Christian Church. The only one is the spiritual temple, the whole body of believing worshippers in which the Holy Spirit dwells ( 1 Corinthians 6:19 , John 4:23 John 4:24 ). The synagogue, not the temple, was the model of the Christian house of worship. The temple was the house of sacrifice, rather than of prayer. Prayers in the temple were silent and individual ( Luke 1:10 , 18:10-13 ), not joint and public, nor with reading of Scripture, as in the synagogue. The temple, as the name means (from a Greek root "to dwell"), was the earthly dwelling-place of God, where alone He put His name. The synagogue (as the name means an assembly) was the place for assembling men. God now too has His earthly temple, not one of wood and stone, but the congregation of believers, the "living stones" on the "spiritual house." Believers are all spiritual priests in it. Jesus Christ, our High Priest, has the only literal priesthood ( Malachi 1:11 , Matthew 18:20 , 1 Peter 2:5 ) [VITRINGA].
17. If any . . . defile . . . destroy--rather as the Greek verb is the same in both cases, "destroy . . . destroy." God repays in kind by a righteous retaliation. The destroyer shall himself be destroyed. As temporal death was the penalty of marring the material temple ( Leviticus 16:2 , Daniel 5:2 Daniel 5:3 Daniel 5:30 ), so eternal death is the penalty of marring the spiritual temple--the Church. The destroyers here ( 1 Corinthians 3:16 1 Corinthians 3:17 ), are distinct from the unwise or unskilful builders ( 1 Corinthians 3:12 1 Corinthians 3:15 ); the latter held fast the "foundation" ( 1 Corinthians 3:11 ), and, therefore, though they lose their work of superstructure and the special reward, yet they are themselves saved; the destroyers, on the contrary, assailed with false teaching the foundation, and so subvert the temple itself, and shall therefore be [ESTIUS and NEANDER]. I think Paul passes here from the teachers to all the members of the Church, who, by profession, are "priests unto God" ( Exodus 19:6 , 1 Peter 2:9 , Revelation 1:6 ). As the Aaronic priests were doomed to die if they violated the old temple ( Exodus 28:43 ), so any Christian who violates the sanctity of the spiritual temple, shall perish eternally ( Hebrews 12:14 , Hebrews 10:26 Hebrews 10:31 ).
holy--inviolable ( Habakkuk 2:20 ).
which temple ye are--rather, "the which (that is, holy) are ye" [ALFORD], and, therefore, want of holiness on the part of any of you (or, as ESTIUS, "to tamper with the foundation in teaching you") is a violation of the temple, which cannot be let to pass with impunity. GROTIUS supports English Version.
18. seemeth--that is, is, and is regarded by himself and others.
wise in this world--wise in mere worldly wisdom ( 1 Corinthians 1:20 ).
let him become a fool--by receiving the Gospel in its unworldly simplicity, and so becoming a fool in the world's sight [ALFORD]. Let him no longer think himself wise, but seek the true wisdom from God, bringing his understanding into captivity to the obedience of faith [ESTIUS].
19. with God--in the judgment of God.
it is written--in Job 5:13 . The formula of quoting SCRIPTURE used here, establishes the canonicity of Job.
He taketh . . . wise in . . . own craftiness--proving the "foolishness" of the world's wisdom, since it is made by God the very snare to catch those who think themselves so wise. Literally, "He who taketh . . . the whole of the sentence not being quoted, but only the part which suited Paul's purpose.
20. Quotation from Psalms 94:11 . There it is of men; here it is "of the wise." Paul by inspiration states the class of men whose "thoughts" (or rather, "reasonings," as suits the Greek and the sense of the context) the Spirit designated in the Psalm, "vanity," namely, the "proud" ( Psalms 94:2 ) and worldly-wise, whom God in Psalms 94:8 calls "fools," though they "boast themselves" of their wisdom in pushing their interests ( Psalms 94:4 ).
21. let no man glory in men--resuming the subject from 1 Corinthians 3:4 ; compare 1 Corinthians 1:12 1 Corinthians 1:31 , where the true object of glorying is stated: "He that glorieth, let him glory in THE LORD." Also 1 Corinthians 4:6 , "That no one of you be puffed up for one against another."
For all things--not only all men. For you to glory thus in men, is lowering yourselves from your high position as heirs of all things. All men (including your teachers) belong to Christ, and therefore to you, by your union with Him; He makes them and all things work together for your good ( Romans 8:28 ). Ye are not for the sake of them, but they for the sake of you ( 2 Corinthians 4:5 2 Corinthians 4:15 ). They belong to you, not you to them.
22. Enumeration of some of the "all things." The teachers, in whom they gloried, he puts first ( 1 Corinthians 1:12 ). He omits after "Cephas" or Christ (to whom exclusively some at Corinth, 1 Corinthians 1:12 , professed to belong); but, instead, substitutes "ye are Christ's" ( 1 Corinthians 3:23 ).
world . . . life . . . death . . . things present . . . things to come--Not only shall they not "separate you from the love of God in Christ" ( Romans 8:38 Romans 8:39 ), but they "all are yours," that is, are for you ( Romans 8:28 ), and belong to you, as they belong to Christ your Head ( Hebrews 1:2 ).
things present--"things actually present" [ALFORD].
23. ye are Christ's--not Paul's, or Apollos,' or Cephas' ( 1 Corinthians 11:3 Matthew 23:8-10 ). "Neither be ye called masters; for one is your Master, even Christ" ( Romans 14:8 ). Not merely a particular section of you, but ye all are Christ's ( 1 Corinthians 1:12 ).
Christ is God's--( 1 Corinthians 11:3 ). God is the ultimate end of all, even of Christ, His co-equal Son ( 1 Corinthians 15:28 , Philippians 2:6-11 ).