Now the Philistines gathered their forces for war and assembled1 at Socoh in Judah. They pitched camp at Ephes Dammim, between Socoh2 and Azekah.3
References for 1 Samuel 17:1
Saul and the Israelites assembled and camped in the Valley of Elah4 and drew up their battle line to meet the Philistines.
References for 1 Samuel 17:2
The Philistines occupied one hill and the Israelites another, with the valley between them.