1. Avoid the dangers of gluttony.
2. put a knife--an Eastern figure for putting restraint on the appetite.
3. are deceitful meat--though well tasted, injurious.
5. Wilt . . . eyes--As the eyes fly after or seek riches, they are not, that is, either become transitory or unsatisfying; fully expressed by their flying away.
8. The morsel . . . words--that is, disgusted with his true character, all pleasant intercourse will be destroyed.
12. Here begins another series of precepts.
13, 14. While there is little danger that the use of the "divine ordinance of the rod" will produce bodily harm, there is great hope of spiritual good.
15. 16. The pleasure afforded the teacher by the pupil's progress is a motive to diligence.
16. my reins--(Compare Psalms 7:9 ).
17, 18. (Compare Margin). The prosperity of the wicked is short.
18. an end--or, "hereafter," another time, when apparent inequalities shall be adjusted (compare Psalms 37:28-38 ).
20. riotous . . . flesh--prodigal, or eating more than necessary. Instead of "their flesh" (compare Margin), better, "flesh to them," that is, used for pleasure.
21. drowsiness--the dreamy sleep of the slothful.
23. Buy--literally, "get" ( Proverbs 4:5 ).
truth--generally and specially as opposed to errors of all kinds.
26-35. A solemn warning against whoredom and drunkenness ( Hosea 4:11 ).
give me--This is the address of that divine wisdom so often presented ( Proverbs 8:1 , 9:3 , &c.).
my ways--such as I teach you ( Proverbs 3:17 , 9:6 ).
27, 28. deep ditch--a narrow pit, out of which it is hard to climb.
lieth in wait--to ensnare men into the pit, as hunters entrap game (compare Proverbs 22:14 ).
28. increaseth . . . transgressors--( Proverbs 5:8-10 ). The vice alluded to is peculiarly hardening to the heart.
31. when . . . red--the color denoting greater strength (compare Genesis 49:11 , Deuteronomy 32:14 ).
giveth . . . cup--literally, "gives its eye," that is, sparkles.
moveth . . . aright--Perhaps its foaming is meant.
32. The acute miseries resulting from drunkenness contrasted with the temptations.
33, 34. The moral effects: it inflames passion ( Genesis 19:31 Genesis 19:35 ), lays open the heart, produces insensibility to the greatest dangers, and debars from reformation, under the severest sufferings.
35. awake--that is, from drunkenness ( Genesis 9:24 ). This is the language rather of acts than of the tongue.