After the flesh (kata sarka). The literal Israel, the Jewish people, not the spiritual Israel (Israhl kata pneuma) composed of both Jews and Gentiles, the true children of faith ( Romans 2:28 ; Romans 9:8 ; Galatians 3:7 ). Communion with the altar (koinwnoi tou qusiasthriou). Same idea in koinwnoi participators in, partners in, sharers in (with objective genitive). The word qusiasthrion is from late verb qusiazw, to offer sacrifice, and that from qusia, sacrifice, and that from quw, common verb to slay, to sacrifice (verse Galatians 20 ). The Israelites who offer sacrifices have a spiritual participation in the altar.