Rendering (didonto). Genitive of present active participle of didwmi, to give, agreeing with Ihsou. Vengeance (ekdikhsin). Late word from ekdikew, to vindicate, in Polybius and LXX. To them that know not God (toi mh eidosin qeon). Dative plural of perfect active participle eidw. Apparently chiefly Gentiles in mind ( 1 Thessalonians 4:3 ; Galatians 4:8 ; Romans 1:28 ; Ephesians 2:12 ), though Jews are also guilty of wilful ignorance of God ( Romans 2:14 ). And to them that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus (kai toi mh upakouousin twi euaggeliwi tou kuriou hmwn Ihsou). Repetition of the article looks like another class and so Jews ( Romans 10:16 ). Both Jews as instigators and Gentiles as officials (politarc) were involved in the persecution in Thessalonica ( Acts 17:5-9 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:6 ). Note the use of "gospel" here as in Mark 1:15 "believe in the gospel."