Through faith (dia pistew). Change thus from the routine pistei used so far. Subdued kingdoms (kathgwnisanto basileia). First aorist middle indicative of katagwnizomai, Koin verb to struggle against, to overcome, here alone in the N.T. Used by Josephus of David's conquests. The author has here (verses Galatians 33 34 ), "nine terse clauses" (Moffatt) with no connective (asyndeton) with great rhetorical and oratorical force (sledge-hammer style). For "wrought righteousness" (hrgasanto dikaiosunhn, first aorist middle indicative of ergazomai) see Acts 10:35 . Obtained promises (epetucon epaggeliwn). Second aorist active indicative of epitugcanw, old verb (already in Acts 6:15 ) with genitive. But they did not see the fulfilment of the Messianic promise ( Acts 11:39 ). Stopped the mouths of lions (epraxan stomata leontwn). First aorist active indicative of prassw, old verb to fence in, to block up. See Daniel 6:18-23 .