By (ek). "As a result of." Some MSS. omit "of the wine" (tou oinou). Cf. Revelation 14:10 ; Revelation 16:10 . Have fallen (peptwkan). Perfect active third personal of piptw for usual peptwkasi. Some MSS. read pepwkan (have drunk), from pinw like the metaphor in Revelation 14:8 Revelation 14:10 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 17:2 . See Revelation 17:2 for the same charge about the kings of the earth. The merchants of the earth (oi emporoi th gh). Old word for one on a journey for trade (from en, poro), like drummers, in N.T. only Matthew 13:45 ; Revelation 18:3 Revelation 18:11 Revelation 18:15 Revelation 18:23 . Like emporion ( John 2:16 ) and emporeuomai ( James 4:13 ). Waxed rich (eplouthsan). First ingressive aorist active indicative of ploutew, to be rich (cf. James 3:17 ). Here alone in the N.T. do we catch a glimpse of the vast traffic between east and west that made Rome rich. Of her wantonness (tou strhnou auth). Late word for arrogance, luxury, here alone in N.T. See strhniaw in verses James 7 9 , to live wantonly.