I Jesus (Egw Ihsou). The last and most solemn attestation to the book that from Jesus (the historic Jesus known to the churches), in harmony with Ephesians 1:1 . Have sent (epempsa). First aorist active indicative of pempw, used here in the same sense as aposteila in Ephesians 1:1 as his personal messenger. It is the Jesus of history here speaking, who is also the Christ of theology and the Lamb of God. For the churches (epi tai ekklhsiai). For this use of epi see Ephesians 10:11 ; John 12:16 . It is not just for the seven churches ( Revelation 1:4 ), but for all the churches in the world then and now. I am the root and the offspring of David (Egw eimi h riza kai to geno Daueid). See Revelation 5:5 for "the root of David," to which John now adds to geno in the sense of "offspring" ( Acts 17:28 ), not of family or race ( Acts 4:6 ; Acts 7:13 ). Cf. Matthew 22:42-45 . The bright, the morning star (o asthr o lampro o prwino). The Davidic King is called a star in Numbers 24:17 ; Luke 1:78 . This "day-star" (pwsporo) is interpreted as Christ ( 2 Peter 1:19 ). In Revelation 2:28 the phrase "the morning star" occurs in Christ's words, which is here interpreted. Christ is the Light that was coming into the world ( John 1:9 ; John 8:12 ).