The Fall of Babylon the Great

1 After this I saw another angel with great authority coming down from heaven, and the earth was illuminated by his splendor.

References for Revelation 18:1

      2 He cried in a mighty voice: It has fallen,a Babylon the Great has fallen!b She has become a dwelling for demons, a hauntc for every unclean spirit, a hauntd for every unclean bird, and a haunte for every unclean and despicable beast.f g

      References for Revelation 18:2

        • a 18:2 - Other mss omit It has fallen
        • b 18:2 - Rv 14:8; Isaiah 21:9
        • c 18:2 - Or prison
        • d 18:2 - Or prison
        • e 18:2 - Or prison
        • f 18:2 - Other mss omit the words and a haunt for every unclean beast. The words and despicable then refer to the bird of the previous line.
        • g 18:2 - Isaiah 13:20-22
          3 For all the nations have drunkh the wine of her sexual immorality, which brings wrath.i The kings of the earth have committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth have grown wealthy from her excessive luxury.

          References for Revelation 18:3

            • h 18:3 - Other mss read have collapsed; other mss read have fallen
            • i 18:3 - Rv 14:8; 17:2
              4 Then I heard another voice from heaven: Come out of her, My people, so that you will not share in her sins,j or receive any of her plagues.

              References for Revelation 18:4

                • j 18:4 - Isaiah 52:11; Jr 50:8; 51:6,9,45; 2 Co 6:17
                  5 For her sins are piled upk to heaven,l and God has remembered her crimes.

                  References for Revelation 18:5

                    • k 18:5 - Or sins have reached up
                    • l 18:5 - Jr 51:9
                      6 Pay her back the way she also paid,m and double it according to her works.n In the cup in which she mixed,o mix a double portion for her.

                      References for Revelation 18:6

                        • m 18:6 - Jr 50:29
                        • n 18:6 - Isaiah 40:2; Jr 16:18; 17:18
                        • o 18:6 - Rv 14:8
                          7 As much as she glorified herself and lived luxuriously, give her that much torment and grief. Because she says in her heart, 'I sit as queen; I am not a widow, and I will never see grief,'p

                          References for Revelation 18:7

                            • p 18:7 - Isaiah 47:7-8
                              8 therefore her plagues will come in one dayq- death, and grief, and famine. She will be burned up with fire, because the Lord God who judges her is mighty.

                              References for Revelation 18:8

                                  The World Mourns Babylon's Fall

                                  9 The kings of the earth who have committed sexual immorality and lived luxuriously with her will weep and mourn over her when they see the smoke of her burning.

                                  References for Revelation 18:9

                                      10 They stand far off in fear of her torment, saying: Woe, woe, the great city, Babylon, the mighty city! For in a single hourr your judgment has come.

                                      References for Revelation 18:10

                                          11 The merchants of the earth will also weep and mourn over her, because no one buys their merchandise any longer-
                                          12 merchandise of gold, silver, precious stones, and pearls; fine fabrics of linen, purple, silk, and scarlet; all kinds of fragrant wood products; objects of ivory; objects of expensive wood, brass,s iron, and marble;

                                          References for Revelation 18:12

                                            • s 18:12 - Or bronze, or copper
                                              13 cinnamon, spice,t u incense, myrrh,v and frankincense; wine, olive oil, fine wheat flour, and grain; cattle and sheep; horses and carriages; and human bodies and souls.w x y

                                              References for Revelation 18:13

                                                • t 18:13 - Other mss omit spice
                                                • u 18:13 - Or amomum, an aromatic plant
                                                • v 18:13 - Or perfume
                                                • w 18:13 - Or carriages; and slaves, namely, human beings
                                                • x 18:13 - Slaves; "bodies" was the Gk way of referring to slaves; "souls of men" was the Hb way.
                                                • y 18:13 - Gn 36:6; Nm 31:32-35; 1 Ch 5:21; Ezk 27:13
                                                  14 The fruit you craved has left you. All your splendid and glamorous things are gone; they will never find them again.
                                                  15 The merchants of these things, who became rich from her, will stand far off in fear of her torment, weeping and mourning,
                                                  16 saying: Woe, woe, the great city, clothed in fine linen, purple, and scarlet, adorned with gold, precious stones, and pearls;
                                                  17 because in a single hourz such fabulous wealth was destroyed! And every shipmaster, seafarer, the sailors, and all who do business by sea, stood far off

                                                  References for Revelation 18:17

                                                      18 as they watched the smoke from her burning and kept crying out: "Who is like the great city?"{

                                                      References for Revelation 18:18

                                                          19 They threw dust on their heads and kept crying out, weeping, and mourning:| Woe, woe, the great city,} where all those who have ships on the sea became rich from her wealth; because in a single hour~ she was destroyed.

                                                          References for Revelation 18:19

                                                              20 Rejoice over her, heaven, and you saints, apostles, and prophets, because God has executed your judgment on her!€

                                                              References for Revelation 18:20

                                                                •  18:20 - Rv 12:12
                                                                • € 18:20 - Or God pronounced on her the judgment she passed on you; see Rv 18:6

                                                                  The Finality of Babylon's Fall

                                                                  21 Then a mighty angel picked up a stone like a large millstone and threw it into the sea, saying: In this way, Babylon the great city will be thrown down violently‚ and never be found again.ƒ

                                                                  References for Revelation 18:21

                                                                    •  18:21 - Rv 5:2; 10:1
                                                                    • ‚ 18:21 - Jr 51:59-64
                                                                    • ƒ 18:21 - Rv 16:20; 18:11,14,22-23
                                                                      22 The sound of harpists, musicians, flutists, and trumpeters will never be heard in you again;„ no craftsman of any trade will ever be found in you again; the sound of a mill will never be heard in you again;

                                                                      References for Revelation 18:22

                                                                          23 the light of a lamp will never shine in you again; and the voice of a groom and bride will never be heard in you again.… [All this will happen] because your merchants were the nobility of the earth, because all the nations were deceived by your sorcery,†

                                                                          References for Revelation 18:23

                                                                            • … 18:23 - Jr 25:10
                                                                            • † 18:23 - Ancient sorcery or witchcraft often used spells and drugs. Here the term may be non-literal, that is, Babylon drugged the nations with her beauty and power.
                                                                              24 and the blood of prophets and saints, and all those slaughtered on earth, was found in you.‡ ˆ

                                                                              References for Revelation 18:24