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Service

SERVICE

sur'-vis:

Six Hebrew, two Aramaic and four Greek words are so rendered.

1. In the Old Testament:

In the Old Testament the word most used for "service" is

(1) `abhodhah, from `abhadh, which is the general word, meaning "to work" and so "to serve," "to till," also "to enslave." The noun means "bondage," "labor," "ministering," "service," "tillage," "work," "use." The word is used in describing work in the fields (Exodus 1:14, et al.), work in the tabernacle (Exodus 27:19, et al.), sanctuary service (Numbers 7:9), service of Yahweh (Numbers 8:11), Levitical or priestly service (Numbers 8:22), kingly service (1 Chronicles 26:30), etc. Reference is made to instruments, wood vessels, cattle, herbs, shekels for the service in the house of Yahweh.

(2) `Abhadh itself is translated "service" in Numbers 8:15; 18:23; Jeremiah 22:13.

(3) Seradh means "stitching," i.e. piercing with a needle; it occurs only 4 times, and in each case in the Revised Version (British and American) instead of "service" is translated "finely wrought garments" (Exodus 31:10; 35:19; 39:1,41).

(4) Sharath means primarily "to attend" as a servant or worshipper, and to contribute to or render service, wait on, and thence service; occurs only 3 times (Exodus 35:19; 39:1,41 the King James Version) and in the American Standard Revised Version is rendered "for ministering."

(5) Tsabha' is found 7 times, used in the same connection each time, and refers to those numbered for service in the tent of meeting. Its primary root meaning refers to service for war, campaign, hardship (Numbers 4:30,35,39,43; 8:24).

(6) Yadh means literally, an "open hand, indicating direction, power, and so ministry as in 1 Chronicles 6:31, where David appoints certain ones to have direction of the music, translated in 1 Chronicles 29:5, the Revised Version (British and American) not service, but "himself."

(7) `Abhidhah means "business," "labor," "affairs"; Ezra 6:18 is the only place where it is found.

(8) Polchan, from root meaning "to worship," "minister to," and so in Ezra 7:19 vessels given for service.

2. In the New Testament:

The following are the uses in the New Testament:

(1) Diakonia, from root meaning "to run on errands," and so attendance, aid as a servant, ministry, relief, and hence, service; compare English word "deacon"; Paul:

"that I might minister unto you" (2 Corinthians 11:8); also found in Romans 15:31 ("ministration") and Revelation 2:19 ("ministry").

(2) Douleuo, literally, "to be a slave," in bondage, service (Galatians 4:8, "bondage"; Eph 6:7, "service"; 1Ti 6:2, "serve").

(3) Latreia, from root meaning "to render religious homage," menial service to God, and so worship (John 16:2, "service"; Ro 9:4, "service"; Ro 12:1, "spiritual service"; Heb 9:1, "service"; 9:6, "services").

(4) Leitourgia, from root "to perform religious or charitable functions," worship, relieve, obey, minister, and hence, a public function, priestly or charitable (liturgy) (2 Corinthians 9:12, "service"; also in Philippians 2:17,30).

See SERVANT.

William Edward Raffety


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography Information
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. "Entry for 'SERVICE'". "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia". 1915.