The calling of the Gentiles, and the rejection of the Jews. (1-7) The Lord would preserve a remnant. (8-10) Judgments upon the wicked. (11-16) The future happy and flourishing state of the church. (17-25)
Verses 1-7 The Gentiles came to seek God, and find him, because they were first sought and found of him. Often he meets some thoughtless trifler or profligate opposer, and says to him, Behold me; and a speedy change takes place. All the gospel day, Christ waited to be gracious. The Jews were bidden, but would not come. It is not without cause they are rejected of God. They would do what most pleased them. They grieved, they vexed the Holy Spirit. They forsook God's temple, and sacrificed in groves. They cared not for the distinction between clean and unclean meats, before it was taken away by the gospel. Perhaps this is put for all forbidden pleasures, and all that is thought to be gotten by sin, that abominable thing which the Lord hates. Christ denounced many woes against the pride and hypocrisy of the Jews. The proof against them is plain. And let us watch against pride and self-preference, remembering that every sin, and the most secret thoughts of man's heart, are known and will be judged by God.
Verses 8-10 In the bunch of unripe grapes, at present of no value, the new wine is contained. The Jews have been kept a distinct people, that all may witness the fulfilment of ancient prophecies and promises. God's chosen, the spiritual seed of praying Jacob, shall inherit his mountains of bliss and joy, and be carried safe to them through the vale of tears. All things are for the display of God's glory in the redemption of sinners.
Verses 11-16 Here the different states of the godly and wicked, of the Jews who believed, and of those who persisted in unbelief, are set against one another. They prepared a table for that troop of deities which the heathen worship, and poured out drink-offerings to that countless number. Their worshippers spared no cost to honour them, which should shame the worshippers of the true God. See the malignity of sin; it is doing by choice what we know will displease God. In every age and nation, the Lord leaves those who persist in doing evil, and despise the call of the gospel. God's servants shall have the bread of life, and shall want nothing good for them. But those who forsake the Lord, shall be ashamed of vain confidence in their own righteousness, and the hopes they built thereon. Wordly people bless themselves in the abundance of this world's goods; but God's servants bless themselves in him. He is their strength and portion. They shall honour him as the God of truth. And it was promised that in him should all the families of the earth be blessed. They shall think themselves happy in having him for their God, who made them forget their troubles.
Verses 17-25 In the grace and comfort believers have in and from Christ, we are to look for this new heaven and new earth. The former confusions, sins and miseries of the human race, shall be no more remembered or renewed. The approaching happy state of the church is described under a variety of images. He shall be thought to die in his youth, and for his sins, who only lives to the age of a hundred years. The event alone can determine what is meant; but it is plain that Christianity, if universal, would so do away violence and evil, as greatly to lengthen life. In those happy days, all God's people shall enjoy the fruit of their labours. Nor will children then be the trouble of their parents, or suffer trouble themselves. The evil dispositions of sinners shall be completely moritified; all shall live in harmony. Thus the church on earth shall be full of happiness, like heaven. This prophecy assures the servants of Christ, that the time approaches, wherein they shall be blessed with the undisturbed enjoyment of all that is needful for their happiness. As workers together with God, let us attend his ordinances, and obey his commands.
Isaiah 65:1-25 . GOD'S REPLY IN JUSTIFICATION OF HIS DEALINGS WITH ISRAEL.
In Isaiah 64:9 , their plea was, "we are all Thy people." In answer, God declares that others (Gentiles) would be taken into covenant with Him, while His ancient people would be rejected. The Jews were slow to believe this; hence Paul says ( Romans 10:20 ) that Isaiah was "very bold" in advancing so unpopular a sentiment; he implies what Paul states ( Romans 2:28 , Romans 9:6 Romans 9:7 , 11:1-31 ), that "they are not all (in opposition to the Jews' plea, Isaiah 64:9 ) Israel which are of Israel." God's reason for so severely dealing with Israel is not changeableness in Him, but sin in them ( Isaiah 65:2-7 ). Yet the whole nation shall not be destroyed, but only the wicked; a remnant shall be saved ( Isaiah 65:8-10 Isaiah 65:11-16 ). There shall be, finally, universal blessedness to Israel, such as they had prayed for ( Isaiah 65:17-25 ).
1. I am sought--Hebrew, "I have granted access unto Me to them," &c. (so Ezekiel 14:3 , "Should I be inquired of"; Ephesians 2:18 ).
found-- Romans 10:20 renders this, "I was made manifest." As an instance of the sentiment in the clause, "I am sought," &c., see John 12:21 ; of the sentiment in this clause, Acts 9:5 . Compare as to the Gentile converts, Ephesians 2:12 Ephesians 2:13 .
Behold me--( Isaiah 45:22 ).
nation . . . not called by my name--that is, the Gentiles. God retorts in their own words ( Isaiah 63:19 ) that their plea as being exclusively "called by His name" will not avail, for God's gospel invitation is not so exclusive ( Romans 9:25 , 1:16 ).
2. spread out . . . hands--inviting them earnestly ( Proverbs 1:24 ).
all . . . day--continually, late and early ( Jeremiah 7:13 ).
rebellious people--Israel, whose rebellion was the occasion of God's turning to the Gentiles ( Romans 11:11 Romans 11:12 Romans 11:15 ).
way . . . not good--that is, the very reverse of good, very bad ( Ezekiel 36:31 ).
3. continually--answering to "all the day" ( Isaiah 65:2 ). God was continually inviting them, and they continually offending Him ( Deuteronomy 32:21 ).
to my face--They made no attempt to hide their sin ( Isaiah 3:9 ). Compare "before Me" ( Exodus 20:3 ). Isaiah 66:17 , Leviticus 17:5 ).
altars of brick--Hebrew, "bricks." God had commanded His altars to be of unhewn stone ( Exodus 20:25 ). This was in order to separate them, even in external respects, from idolaters; also, as all chiselling was forbidden, they could not inscribe superstitious symbols on them as the heathen did. Bricks were more easily so inscribed than stone; hence their use for the cuneiform inscriptions at Babylon, and also for idolatrous altars. Some, not so well, have supposed that the "bricks" here mean the flat brick-paved roofs of houses on which they sacrificed to the sun, &c. ( 2 Kings 23:12 , Jeremiah 19:13 ).
4. remain among . . . graves--namely, for purposes of necromancy, as if to hold converse with the dead ( Isaiah 8:19 Isaiah 8:20 ; compare Mark 5:3 ); or, for the sake of purifications, usually performed at night among sepulchres, to appease the manes [MAURER].
monuments--Hebrew, "pass the night in hidden recesses," either the idol's inmost shrines ("consecrated precincts") [HORSLEY], where they used to sleep, in order to have divine communications in dreams [JEROME]; or better, on account of the parallel "graves," sepulchral caves [MAURER].
eat swine's flesh--To eat it at all was contrary to God's law ( Leviticus 11:7 ), but it much increased their guilt that they ate it in idolatrous sacrifices (compare Isaiah 66:17 ). VARRO (On Agriculture, 2.4) says that swine were first used in sacrifices; the Latins sacrificed a pig to Ceres; it was also offered on occasion of treaties and marriages.
broth--so called from the "pieces" (Margin) or fragments of bread over which the broth was poured [GESENIUS]; such broth, made of swine's flesh, offered in sacrifice, was thought to be especially acceptable to the idol and was used in magic rites. Or, "fragments (pieces) of abominable foods," &c. This fourth clause explains more fully the third, as the second does the first [MAURER].
is in--rather, literally, "is their vessels," that is, constitute their vessels' contents. The Jews, in our Lord's days, and ever since the return from Babylon, have been free from idolatry; still the imagery from idolatrous abominations, as being the sin most loathsome in God's eyes and that most prevalent in Isaiah's time, is employed to describe the foul sin of Israel in all ages, culminating in their killing Messiah, and still rejecting Him.
5. ( Matthew 9:11 , Luke 5:30 , 18:11 , Jude 1:19 ). Applicable to the hypocritical self-justifiers of our Lord's time.
smoke--alluding to the smoke of their self-righteous sacrifices; the fire of God's wrath was kindled at the sight, and exhibited itself in the smoke that breathed forth from His nostrils; in Hebrew the nose is the seat of anger; and the nostrils distended in wrath, as it were, breathe forth smoke [ROSENMULLER] ( Psalms 18:8 ).
6. written before me--"it is decreed by Me," namely, what follows ( Job 13:26 ), [MAURER]; or, their guilt is recorded before Me (compare Daniel 7:10 , Revelation 20:12 , Malachi 3:16 ).
into . . . bosom--( Psalms 79:12 , Jeremiah 32:18 , Luke 6:38 ). The Orientals used the loose fold of the garment falling on "the bosom" or lap, as a receptacle for carrying things. The sense thus is: I will repay their sin so abundantly that the hand will not be able to receive it; it will need the spacious fold on the bosom to contain it [ROSENMULLER]. Rather it is, "I will repay it to the very person from whom it has emanated." Compare "God did render the evil of the men of Shechem upon their heads" ( Judges 9:57 , Psalms 7:16 ) [GESENIUS].
7. Their sin had been accumulating from age to age until God at last repaid it in full.
mountains--( Isaiah 57:7 , Ezekiel 18:6 , Ezekiel 20:27 Ezekiel 20:28 , Hosea 4:13 ).
their--"Your" had preceded. From speaking to, He speaks of them; this implies growing alienation from them and greater distance.
work--the full recompense of their work (so Isaiah 49:4 ).
8. new wine--as if some grapes having good wine-producing juice in them, be found in a cluster which the vinedresser was about to throw away as bad, and one saith, &c.
blessing--that is, good wine-producing juice (compare Judges 9:13 , Joel 2:14 ).
so--God will spare the godly "remnant," while the ungodly mass of the nation shall be destroyed ( Isaiah 1:9 , 6:13 , 10:21 , Isaiah 11:11 Isaiah 11:12-16 ).
my servants--the godly remnant. But HORSLEY, "for the sake of my servant, Messiah."
9. seed--"the holy seed" ( Isaiah 6:13 ), a posterity from Jacob, designed to repossess the Holy Land, forfeited by the sin of the former Jews. Achor
my mountains--Jerusalem and the rest of Judea, peculiarly God's (compare Isaiah 2:2 , 11:9 , 14:32 ).
it--the Holy Land.
elect--( Isaiah 65:15 Isaiah 65:22 ).
--meaning "trouble"; a valley near Jericho, so called from the trouble caused to Israel by Achan's sin ( Joshua 7:24
). "The valley of Achor," proverbial for whatever caused calamity, shall become proverbial joy and prosperity ( Hosea 2:15
11. holy mountain--Moriah, on which the temple was.
troop--rather "Gad," the Babylonian god of fortune, the planet Jupiter, answering to Baal or Bel; the Arabs called it "the Greater Good Fortune"; and the planet Venus answering to Meni, "the Lesser Good Fortune" [GESENIUS, KIMCHI, &c.]. Tables were laid out for their idols with all kinds of viands, and a cup containing a mixture of wine and honey, in Egypt especially, on the last day of the year [JEROME].
drink offering--rather, "mixed drink."
number--rather, "Meni"; as goddess of fortune she was thought to number the fates of men. VITRINGA understands Gad to be the sun; Meni the moon, or Ashtaroth or Astarte ( 1 Kings 11:33 ).
12. number--"doom" you. Alluding to the "number," as Meni ( Isaiah 65:11 ) means. Retribution in kind, the punishment answering to the sin (compare 2 Chronicles 36:14-17 ).
I called, ye . . . not answer--"I called," though "none had called" upon Me ( Isaiah 64:7 ); yet even then none "answered" ( Proverbs 1:24 ). Contrast with this God and His people's mutual fellowship in prayer ( Isaiah 65:24 ).
13. eat--enjoy all blessings from me ( Solomon 5:1 ).
hungry--( Amos 4:6 , 8:11 ). This may refer to the siege of Jerusalem under Titus, when 1,100,000 are said to have perished by famine; thus Isaiah 65:15 will refer to God's people without distinction of Jew and Gentile receiving "another name," namely, that of Christians [HOUBIGANT]. A further fulfilment may still remain, just before the creation of the "new heavens and earth," as the context, Isaiah 65:17 , implies.
14. howl--( Isaiah 15:2 , Matthew 8:12 ).
15. curse--The name of "Jew" has been for long a formula of execration (compare Jeremiah 29:22 ); if one wishes to curse another, he can utter nothing worse than this, "God make thee what the Jew is!" Contrast the formula ( Genesis 48:20 ) [MAURER].
my chosen--the elect Church, gathered from Jews and Gentiles, called by "another name," Christians ( Acts 11:26 ). However Isaiah 65:3 , refers to the "seed of Jacob," the believing Jews, hereafter about to possess their land ( Isaiah 65:19 Isaiah 65:22 ), are ultimately meant by "My chosen," as contrasted with the unbelieving Jews ("ye"). These elect Jews shall be called by "another," or a new name, that is, shall no longer be "forsaken" of God for unbelief, but shall be His "delight" and "married" to Him ( Isaiah 62:2 Isaiah 62:4 ).
thee--unbelieving Israel. Isaiah here speaks of God, whereas in the preceding sentences God Himself spake. This change of persons marks without design how completely the prophet realized God with him and in him, so that he passes, without formally announcing it, from God's words to his own, and vice versa, both alike being from God.
16. That he--rather, "he who," &c.
blesseth, &c.--( Psalms 72:17 , Jeremiah 4:2 ).
God of truth--very God, as opposed to false gods; Hebrew, Amen: the very name of Messiah ( 2 Corinthians 1:20 , Revelation 3:14 ), faithful to His promises ( John 1:17 , 6:32 ). Real, substantial, spiritual, eternal, as opposed to the shadowy types of the law.
sweareth, &c.--God alone shall be appealed to as God ( Isaiah 19:18 , Deuteronomy 6:13 , Psalms 63:11 ).
troubles--that is, sins, provocations [LOWTH]. Rather, calamities caused by your sins; so far from these visiting you again, the very remembrance of them is "hid from Mine eyes" by the magnitude of the blessings I will confer on you ( Isaiah 65:17 , &c.). [MAURER].
17. As Caleb inherited the same land which his feet trod on ( Deuteronomy 1:36 , Joshua 14:9 ), so Messiah and His saints shall inherit the renovated earth which once they trod while defiled by the enemy ( Isaiah 34:4 , 51:16 , 66:22 , Ezekiel 21:27 , Psalms 2:8 , 37:11 , 2 Peter 3:13 , Hebrews 12:26-28 Revelation 21:1 ). the words here answer to "the former . . . forgotten," &c. The former sorrows of the earth, under the fall, shall be so far from recurring, that their very remembrance shall be obliterated by the many mercies I will bestow on the new earth ( Revelation 21:4-27 ).
18. rejoice for ever . . . Jerusalem--( Isaiah 51:11 ). "Everlasting joy . . . Zion." Spiritually ( 1 Thessalonians 5:16 ).
19. ( Isaiah 62:5 ).
weeping . . . no more--( Isaiah 25:7 Isaiah 25:8 , 35:10 , Revelation 7:17 , 21:4 ), primarily, foretold of Jerusalem; secondarily, of all the redeemed.
20. The longevity of men in the first age of the world shall be enjoyed again. Amos 9:14
thence--from that time forward.
infant of days--that is, an infant who shall only complete a few days; short-lived.
filled . . . days--None shall die without attaining a full old age.
child . . . die . . . hundred years--that is "he that dieth an hundred years old shall die a mere child" [LOWTH].
sinner . . . hundred . . . be accursed--"The sinner that dieth at an hundred years shall be deemed accursed," that is, his death at so early an age, which in those days the hundredth year will be regarded, just as if it were mere childhood, shall be deemed the effect of God's special visitation in wrath [ROSENMULLER]. This passage proves that the better age to come on earth, though much superior to the present will not be a perfect state; sin and death shall have place in it (compare Revelation 20:7 Revelation 20:8 ), but much less frequently than now.
22. They shall not experience the curse pronounced ( Leviticus 26:16 , Deuteronomy 28:30 ).
tree--among the most long-lived of objects in nature. They shall live as long as the trees they "plant" (compare Isaiah 61:3 , end of verse; Psalms 92:12 ).
enjoy--Hebrew, "consume," "wear out"; they shall live to enjoy the last of it ( Isaiah 62:9 ).
23. bring forth for trouble--literally, "for terror," that is, "They shall not bring forth children for a sudden death" ( Leviticus 26:16 , Jeremiah 15:8 ).
seed . . . blessed--( Isaiah 61:9 ).
offspring with them--( Hosea 9:12 ). "Their offspring shall be with themselves" [MAURER]; not "brought forth" only to be cut off by "sudden death" (see the parallel clause).
24. Contrast Isaiah 64:7 , "none . . . calleth," &c.; and "I called, ye did not answer." MAURER translates, "They shall hardly (literally, "not yet") call, when (literally, "and") I will answer; they shall be still speaking, when I will hear" ( Psalms 32:5;,Dan 9:20,21 Dan 9:20 Dan 9:21 ). and the lion shall eat straw like the
and dust--rather, "but dust," &c. The curse shall remain on the serpent [HORSLEY], ( Genesis 3:14 , Micah 7:17 ). "To lick the dust" is figurative of the utter and perpetual degradation of Satan and his emissaries ( Isaiah 49:23 , Psalms 72:9 ). Satan fell self-tempted; therefore no atonement was contrived for him, as there was for man, who fell by his temptation ( Jude 1:6 , John 8:44 ). From his peculiar connection with the earth and man, it has been conjectured that the exciting cause of his rebellion was God's declaration that human nature was to be raised into union with the Godhead; this was "the truth" concerning the person of the Son of God which "he abode not in"; it galled his pride that a lower race was to be raised to that which he had aspired to ( 1 Timothy 3:6 ). How exultingly he might say, when man fell through him, "God would raise manhood into union with Himself; I have brought it down below the beasts by sin!" At that very moment and spot he was told that the seed of the abhorred race, man, should bruise his head ( 1 John 3:8 ). He was raised up for this, to show forth God's glory ( Exodus 9:16 , Romans 9:17 ). In his unfallen state he may have been God's vicegerent over the earth and the animal kingdom before man: this will account for his assuming the form of a serpent ( Genesis 3:1 ). Man succeeded to that office ( Genesis 2:19 Genesis 2:20 ), but forfeited it by sin, whence Satan became "prince of this world"; Jesus Christ supplants the usurper, and as "Son of man" regains the lost inheritance ( Psalms 8:4-8 ). The steps in Satan's overthrow are these: he is cast out, first, from heaven ( Revelation 12:7-9 ) on earth; next, he is bound a thousand years ( Revelation 20:2 Revelation 20:3 ); finally, he is cast into the lake of fire for ever ( Revelation 20:10 ).
They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy