Many Personal Greetings

1 Now I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is also a servant of the church in Cenchrea,

References for Romans 16:1

    • a 16:1 - Or "a deaconess"; some interpreters understand this term to refer to a specific office (deacon/deaconess) which Phoebe held in the local church at Cenchrea
      2 in order that you may welcome her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the saints, and help her in whatever task she may have need from you, for she herself also has been a helper of many, even me myself.
      3 Greet Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers in Christ Jesus,
      4 who risked their own necks for my life, for which not only I am thankful, but also all the churches of the Gentiles;
      5 also [greet] the church in their house. Greet Epenetus my dear [friend], who is {the first convert} of Asia for Christ.

      References for Romans 16:5

        • b 16:5 - The verb is supplied as an understood repetition from v. 3
        • c 16:5 - Literally "the first fruits"
          6 Greet Mary, who {has worked hard} for you.

          References for Romans 16:6

            • d 16:6 - Literally "has labored much"
              7 Greet Andronicus and Junia, my compatriots and my fellow prisoners, who are well known to the apostles, who were also in Christ before me.

              References for Romans 16:7

                • e 16:7 - Or "Junias," the masculine form of the same name
                • f 16:7 - Or "relatives"
                • g 16:7 - Or "are outstanding among"
                  8 Greet Ampliatus, my dear [friend] in the Lord.
                  9 Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker in Christ, and my dear [friend] Stachys.
                  10 Greet Apelles, who [is] approved in Christ. Greet those of the [household] of Aristobulus.
                  11 Greet Herodion my compatriot. Greet those of the [household] of Narcissus who are in the Lord.

                  References for Romans 16:11

                    • h 16:11 - Or "relative"
                      12 Greet Tryphena and Tryphosa, the laborers in the Lord. Greet Persis, the dear [friend] who {has worked hard} in the Lord.

                      References for Romans 16:12

                        • i 16:12 - Literally "has labored much"
                          13 Greet Rufus, the chosen one in the Lord, and his mother and mine.
                          14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers with them.
                          15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints [who are] with them.
                          16 Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ greet you.

                          Concluding Exhortations

                          17 Now I exhort you, brothers, to look out for those who cause dissensions and temptations contrary to the teaching which you learned, and stay away from them.

                          References for Romans 16:17

                              18 For such people do not serve our Lord Christ, but their own stomach, and by smooth speech and flattery they deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting.
                              19 For [the report of] your obedience has reached to all; therefore I am rejoicing over you, and I want you to be wise toward what [is] good, but innocent toward what [is] evil.
                              20 And in a short time the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with you.

                              References for Romans 16:20

                                • j 16:20 - Some manuscripts omit "Christ"

                                  Greetings from Paul’s Associates

                                  21 Timothy, my fellow worker, greets you, and Lucius and Jason and Sosipater, my compatriots.

                                  References for Romans 16:21

                                    • k 16:21 - Or "relatives"
                                      22 I, Tertius, the one who wrote this letter, greet you in the Lord.
                                      23 Gaius, my host and [the host] of the whole church, greets you. Erastus the city treasurer greets you, and Quartus the brother.


                                      24 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ [be] with all of you. Amen.

                                      References for Romans 16:24

                                        • l 16:24 - Some manuscripts include vv. 25-27, "25 Now to the one who is able to strengthen you according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery that had been kept secret for eternal ages, 26 but now has been revealed, and through the prophetic scriptures has been made known according to the command of the eternal God, resulting in obedience of faith to all the Gentiles, 27 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, to whom [be] the glory for eternity. Amen."