AUGUSTINE AND THE VANDALS.
"Lo, Eli sat on a seat by the way-side watching, for his heart trembled for the ark of God."
I Have lately directed my reader's attention to the labours of a missionary bishop, who restored the light of Christianity where it had long been obscured. In my present, I will put before him, by way of contrast, a scene of the overthrow of religion, the extinction of a candlestick, effected, too, by champions of the same heretical creed which Gregory successfully resisted. It will be found in the history of the last days of the great Augustine, bishop of Hippo, in Africa.
Though it may not be given us to appropriate the prophecies of the Apocalypse to the real events to which they respectively belong, yet it is impossible to read its inspired pages, and then to turn to the history of the dissolution of the Roman empire, without seeing a remarkable adaptation, on the whole, between the calamities of that period and the sacred prediction. There is a plain announcement in the inspired page, of " Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth;" an announcement of " hail and fire mingled with blood," the conflagration of "trees and green grass," the destruction of ships, the darkening of the sun, and the poisoning of the waters over a third of the earth. There is a clear prophecy of revolutions on the face of the earth and the structure of society. And, on the other hand, let us observe how fully such general foretokenings are borne out, among other passages pf history, in the Vandalic conquest of Africa.
The coast of Africa, between the great desert and the Mediterranean, was one of the most fruitful and opulent portions of the Roman world. The eastern extremity of it was more especially connected with the empire, containing in it Carthage, Hippo, and other towns, celebrated as being sees of the Christian Church, as well as places of civil importance. In the spring of the year 428, the Vandals, Arians by creed, and barbarians by birth and conduct, crossed the Straits of Gibraltar, and proceeded along this fertile district, bringing with them devastation and captivity on every side. They abandoned themselves to the most savage cruelties and excesses. They pillaged, ravaged, burned, massacred all that came in their way, sparing not even the fruit trees, which might have afforded some poor food to the remnant of the population, who had escaped from them into caves, the recesses of the mountains, or into vaults. Twice did this desolating pestilence sweep over the face of the country.
The fury of the Vandals was especially exercised towards the memorials of religion. Churches, cemeteries, monasteries, were objects of their fiercest hatred and most violent assaults. They broke into the places of worship, cut to pieces all internal decorations, and then set fire to them. They tortured bishops and clergy with the hope of obtaining treasure. The names of some of the victims of their ferocity are preserved. Mansuetus, bishop of Utica, was burnt alive; Papinianus, bishop of Vite, was laid upon red-hot plates of iron. This was near upon the time when the third General Council was assembling at Ephesus, which, from the insecure state of the roads, and the universal misery which reigned among them, the African bishops were precluded from attending. The clergy, the religious brotherhoods, the holy virgins, were scattered all over the country. The daily service was stopped, the sacraments could not be obtained, the festivals of the Church passed unnoticed. At length, only three cities remained unvisited by the general desolation,—Carthage, Hippo, and Cirtha.
Hippo was the see of St. Austin, at that time seventy-four years of age (forty almost of which had been passed in ministerial labours), and warned, by the decay of nature, of the approach of dissolution. It was as if the light of prosperity and peace was fading away from the African Church, as sank the bodily powers of its great earthly ornament and stay. At this time, when the terrors of the barbaric invasion spread on all sides, a bishop wrote to him to ask whether it was allowable in the ruler of a Church to leave the scene of his pastoral duties in order to save his life. Different opinions had heretofore been expressed on this question. In Augustine's own country Tertullian had maintained that flight was unlawful, but he was a Montanist at the time. On the other hand, Cyprian had actually fled, and had defended his conduct when censured by the clergy of Rome. His contemporaries, Dionysius -of Alexandria, and Gregory of Neocsesarea, had fled also; as had Polycarp before them, and Athanasius after them.
Athanasius's reasons for flight, in his published defence of himself, are as follows:— First, he observes, it has the sanction of numerous Scripture precedents. Thus, in the instance of confessors under the old covenant, Jacob fled from Esau, Moses from Pharaoh, David from Saul, Elijah concealed himself from Ahab three years, and the sons of the prophets were hid by Obadiah in a cave from Jezebel. In like manner under the Gospel, the disciples hid themselves for fear of the Jews, and St. Paul was let down in a basket over the wall at Damascus. On the other hand, no instance can be adduced of over-boldness and headstrong daring in the saints of Scripture. Christ Himself is the chief exemplar of flying from persecution. As a child in arms He had to flee into Egypt. When He returned, He still shunned Judea, and retired to Nazareth. After raising Lazarus, on the Jews seeking His life, "He did not any more walk openly among them," but retreated to the neighbourhood of the wilderness. When they took up stones to cast at Him, He hid Himself; when they attempted to cast Him down headlong, He made His way through them; when He heard of the Baptist's death, He retired across the lake into a desert place, apart. If it be said that He did so, because His time was not yet come, and that when it was come, He delivered up Himself, we must ask, in reply, how a man can know that his time is come, so as to have a right to do the same. And as not knowing, we must have patience, and, till God by His own act, determines the time, we must "wander in sheep-skins and goat-skins," rather than take the matter into our own hands; as David, in contrary circumstances, left Saul in the hands of God, whether He would "smite him, or his day should come to die, or he should descend into battle and perish."
If God's servants, proceeds Athanasius, have ever presented themselves before their persecutors, it was at God's command: thus Elijah showed himself to Ahab; so did the prophet from Judah, to Jeroboam; and St. Paul appealed to Csesar. Flight, so far from implying cowardice, requires often greater courage than remaining. It is a greater trial of the heart. Death is an end of all trouble; he who flees is ever expecting death, and dies daily. Job's life was not to be touched by Satan, yet was not his fortitude shown in what he suffered? Exile is full of miseries. The after-conduct of the saints showed they had not fled for fear. Jacob, on his death-bed, contemned death, and exultingly blessed the twelve Patriarchs; Moses returned, and presented himself before Pharaoh; David was a valiant warrior; Elijah rebuked Ahab and Ahaziah; Peter and Paul, who had once hid themselves, offered themselves to martyrdom at Rome. And so acceptable was the previous flight of these men to Almighty God, that we read of His showing them some special favour during it. Jacob had the vision of Angels; Moses saw the burning bush; David wrote his prophetic Psalms; Elijah raised the dead, and at length gathered the people on Mount Carmel. How would the Gospel ever have been preached through
out the world, if the Apostles had not fled? And, since their time, those, too, who have become martyrs, at first fled; or, if they advanced to meet their persecutors, it was by some secret suggestion of the Divine Spirit. But, above all, while these instances abundantly illustrate the rule of duty in persecution, and the animus necessary in obeying it, we have that duty itself declared in a plain precept by no other than our Lord: "When they persecute you in one city," He says, "flee ye unto another;" and " let them that are in Judea flee to the mountains."
Thus argues the great Athanasius, living in spirit with the saints departed, while full of labour and business here on earth. For the arguments on the other side, let us turn to a writer, not less vigorous in mind, but less subdued. Thus writes Tertullian on the same subject, then a Montanist, a century and a half earlier:—Nothing happens, he says, without God's will. Persecution is sent by Him, to put His servants to the test; to divide between good and bad: it is a trial; what man has any right to interfere? He who gives the prize, alone can assign the combat. Persecution is more than permitted, it is actually appointed by Almighty God. It does the Church much good, as leading Christians to increased seriousness while it lasts. Tt comes and goes at God's ordering. Satan could not touch Job, except so far as God gave permission. He could not touch the Apostles, except as far as an opening was allowed in the words, "Satan hath desired to have you, but I have prayed for thee," Peter, "and when thou art converted strengthen thy brethren." We pray, "Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil;" why, if we may deliver ourselves? Satan is permitted access to us, either for punishment, as in Saul's case, or for our chastisement. Since the persecution comes from God, we may not lawfully avoid it, nor can we avoid it. We cannot, because He is all powerful; we must not, because He is all good. We should leave the matter entirely to God. As to the command of fleeing from city to city, this was temporary. It was intended to secure the preaching of the Gospel to the nations. While the Apostles preached to the Jews,—till they had preached to the Gentiles,—they were to flee; but one might as well argue, that we now are not to go " into the way of the Gentiles," but to confine ourselves to "the lost sheep of the house of Israel," as that we are now to "flee from city to city." Nor, indeed, was going from city to city a flight; it was a continued preaching; not an accident, but a rule; whether persecuted or not, they were to go about; and before they had gone through the cities of Israel, the Lord was to come. The command contemplated only those very cities. If St. Paul escaped out of Damascus by night, yet afterwards, against the prayers of the disciples and the prophecy of Agabus, he went up to Jerusalem. Thus the command to flee did not even last through the lifetime of the Apostles; and, indeed, why should God introduce persecution, if He bids us retire from it? This is imputing inconsistency to His acts. If we want texts to justify remaining, He says, "Whoso shall confess Me before men, I will confess him before My Father." "Blessed are they that are persecuted;" "He who shall endure to the end, the same shall be saved;" "Fear not them that kill the body;" "Whoso taketh not up his cross and followeth Me, cannot be My disciple." How are these texts fulfilled when a man flies? Christ, who is our pattern, did not more than pray, "If it be possible, let the cup pass :" we, too, should both stay and pray as He did. And it is expressly told us, that "We also should lay down our lives for the brethren." Again, it is said, "Perfect love casteth out fear;" he who flees, fears; he who fears, "is not perfect in love." The Greek proverb is sometimes urged, "He who flies, will fight another day;" yes, and he may flee another day, also. Again, if bishops, priests, and deacons flee, why must the laity stay? or must they flee also?" The good shepherd," on the contrary, "layeth down his life for the sheep;" whereas, the bad shepherd "seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth." At no time, as Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Zechariah tell us, is the flock in greater danger of being scattered, than when it loses its shepherd. Tertullian ends thus :—" This doctrine, my brother, perhaps appears to you hard; nay, intolerable. But recollect that God has said, 'Whoso receives, let him receive it;' that is, he who receives not, let him depart. He who fears to suffer, cannot belong to Him who has suffered. He who fears not to suffer, is perfect in love, that is, of God. Many are called, few are chosen. Not he who would walk the broad way, is sought by God, but he who walks the narrow." Thus the ingenious and vehement Tertullian.
With these remarks for and against flight in persecution, we shall be prepared to listen to Augustine on the subject; I have said, it was brought before him by a brother bishop, with reference to the impending visitation of the barbarians. His answer happily is preserved to us, and extracts from it shall now be set before the reader.
"TO HIS HOLY BROTHER AND FELLOW-BISHOP, HONORATUS, AUGUSTINE SENDS HEALTH IN THE LORD.
"I thought the copy of my letter to our brother Quodvultdeus, which I sent to you, would have been sufficient, dear brother, without the task you put on me of counselling you on the proper course to pursue under our existing dangers. It was certainly a short letter; yet I included every question which it was necessary to ask and answer, when I said that no persons were to be hindered retiring to such fortified places as they were able and desirous to secure; while, on the other hand, we might not break the bonds of our ministry, by which the love of Christ has engaged us not to desert the Church, where we are bound to serve. The following is what I laid down in the letter I refer to :—' It remains, then,' I say, 'that, be God's people, where we are, ever so little, yet, if it does stay, we, whose ministration is necessary to its staying, must say to the Lord, 'Thou art our strong rock and house of defence.'
"But you tell me that this view is not sufficient for you, from an apprehension lest we should be running counter to our Lord's command and example, to fly from city to city. Yet is it conceivable that He meant, that our flocks, whom He bought with His own blood, should be deprived of that necessary ministration without which they cannot live? Is He a precedent for this, who was carried in flight into Egypt by his parents when but a child, before He had formed Churches which we can talk of His leaving? Or, when St. Paul was let down in a basket through a window, lest the enemy should seize him, and so escaped his hands, was the Church of that place bereft of its necessary ministration, seeing there were other brethren stationed there to fulfil what was necessary? Evidently it was their wish that He, who was the direct object of the persecutor's search, should preserve Himself for the sake of the Church. Let, then, the servants of Christ, the ministers of His word and sacrament, do, in such cases, as He enjoined or permitted. Let such of them, by all means, fly from city to city, as are special objects of persecution; so that they who are not thus attacked desert not the Church, but give meat to those their fellow-servants, who they know cannot live without it. But in a case when all classes —I mean bishops, clergy, and people—are in some common danger, let not those who need the aid of others, be deserted by those whom they need. Either let one and all remove into some fortified place, or, if any are obliged to remain, let them not be left by those who have to supply their ecclesiastical necessity, so that they may survive in common, or suffer in common what their Father decrees they should undergo.
"I understand that a certain bishop has argued, that if our Lord has enjoined flight upon us in persecutions which may ripen into martyrdom, much more is it necessary to flee from barren sufferings in a barbarian and hostile invasion. This is true and reasonable; but in the case of such as have no ecclesiastical office to tie them. For he who awaits, when he might escape, the murderous career of a foe, lest he should desert Christ's ministry, without which, men can neither become nor continue Christians, has attained a greater fruit of charity than he who, after flying not for the brethren's sake, but for himself, and then, being captured, confesses Christ, and accepts martyrdom.
"Why should men make no question about obeying the precept about fleeing from city to city, and yet havfc no dread of ' the hireling who seeth the wolf coming, and fleeth, because he careth not for the sheep?' Why do they not try to reconcile (as they assuredly can) these two incontrovertible declarations of our Lord, one of which suffers and commands flight, the other arraigns and condemns it? And what other mode is there of reconciling them, than that which I have above maintained? viz., that we, the ministers of Christ, when under the pressure of persecution, are then at liberty to leave our posts, when no flock is left for us to serve; or again, when, though there be a flock, yet there are others to supply our necessary ministry, who have not the same reason for flying, as in the case of St. Paul; or, again, of the holy Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, who was especially sought after by the emperor Constantius, while the Catholic people, who remained together in Alexandria, were in no measure deserted by the other ministers. But when the people remain, and the ministers flee, and' the ministration is suspended, what is that but the guilty flight of hirelings, who care not for the sheep?
For then the wolf will come, not man, but the devil, as is used to persuade such believers to apostasy who are bereft of the daily ministration of the Lord's Body; and by your, not knowledge, but ignorance of duty, the weak brother will perish, for whom Christ died.
"Let us only consider, when matters come to an extremity of danger, and there is no longer any means of escape, how persons flock together to the Church, of both sexes, and all ages, begging for baptism, or reconciliation, or for even the observance of penance, and one and all of them for consolation, and the consecration and application of the sacraments. Now, if ministers are wanting, what ruin awaits those who depart from this life unregenerate, or unabsolved? Consider the grief of their believing relatives, who will not have them as partakers with themselves in the rest of eternal life; consider the anguish of the whole multitude, nay, the cursings of some of them, at the absence of ministration and ministers.
"It may be said, however, that the ministers of God ought to avoid such imminent perils, in order to preserve themselves for the profit of the Church for more tranquil times. I grant it, where others are present to supply the ecclesiastical ministry, as in the case of Athanasius. How necessary it was to the Church, how beneficial, that such a man should remain in the flesh, the Catholic faith bears witness, which was maintained against the Arians by his voice and love. But when there is a common danger, and when there is rather reason to apprehend lest a man should be thought to flee, not from purpose of prudence, but from dread of dying, and when the example of flight does more harm than the service of living does good, it is by no means to be done. To be brief, holy David withdrew himself from the hazard of war, lest perchance he should 'quench the light of Israel,' at the instance of his people, not on his own motion. Otherwise, he would have occasioned many imitators of an inactivity which they had ascribed, not to regard for the welfare of others, but to cowardice.
"There is another question which demands consideration. If there is a plain expedience in some ministers flying at the prospect of a sweeping calamity, in order that the remnant of the flock, when the slaughter is over, may still have those who can minister to them, what is to be done in a case where all are likely to perish, unless some escape? What, for instance, if the destruction rages only with the view of reaching the ministers of the Church? O, that there may be then a quarrel between God's ministers, who are to remain, and who to flee, lest the Church should be deserted, whether by alTfleeing or all dying. Surely there will ever be such a quarrel, where each party burns in its own charity, yet indulges the charity of the other. In such a difficulty, the lot seems the fairest decision, in default of others. God judges better than man in perplexities of this sort; whether it be His will to reward the holier among them with the crown of martyrdom and to spare the weak, or, again, to strengthen the latter to endure evil, removing those from life whom the Church of God can spare the better. Should it, however, seem inexpedient to cast lots,—a measure for which I cannot bring precedent,—at least, let no one's flight be the cause of the Church's losing those ministrations which, in such dangers, are so necessary and so imperative. Let no one make himself an exception, on the plea of certain grace, -which gives him a claim to life, and therefore to flight.
"It is sometimes supposed, that bishops and clergy, remaining at their posts in dangers of this kind, deceive their flocks into staying, by their example. But it is easy for us to remove this obligation or imputation, by frankly telling them not to be misled by our remaining. 'We are remaining for your sake,' we must say, 'lest you should fail to obtain whatever ministration we know to be necessary to your salvation in Christ. Make your escape, and you will then set us free.' The occasion for saying this, is when there seems some real advantage in retiring to a safer position. Should all or some make answer, 'We are in His hands from whose anger no one can flee anywhere; whose mercy every one may find everywhere, though he stir not, whether some necessary tie detains him, or the uncertainty of safe escape deters him;' most undoubtedly such persons are not to be left destitute of Christian ministrations.
"I have written these lines, dearest brother, in truth, as I think—certainly in love—by way of reply, since you have consulted me; but not as dictating, if, perchance, you may find some better view to guide you. However, better we cannot do in these perils than pray the Lord our God to have mercy upon us."—Ep. 228.
The clear-sighted perception of duty, the calm faith, and the single-minded obedience which this letter exhibits, were fully maintained in the conduct of the far-famed writer, in the events which followed. It was written on the first entrance of the Vandals into Africa, about two years before they laid siege to Hippo; and during this interval of dreadful suspense and excitement to the Church, as well as of actual suffering, amid the desolation of the Church around him, with the prospect of his own personal trials, we find this unwearied teacher carrying on his works of love by pen and word of mouth,—eagerly, as if his time were short, but tranquilly, as if it were a season of prosperity. He commenced a fresh work against the opinions of Julian, a friend of his, who, beginning to run well, had unhappily taken up a bold profession of Pelagianism; wrote a treatise on Predestination, at the suggestion of his friends, to meet the objections urged against former works of his on the same subject; sustained a controversy with the Arians; and began a history of heresies. What makes Augustine's diligence at this season, in the duties of his episcopate, more remarkable is, his being actually engaged at the same time in political affairs, as being a confidential friend and counsellor of Boniface, the governor of Africa (who had first invited and then opposed the entrance of the Vandals), and thus placed in circumstances especially likely to unsettle and agitate his mind.
At length events hastened on to a close. Fugitive multitudes betook themselves to Hippo. Boniface threw himself into it. The Vandals appeared before it, and laid siege to it. Meanwhile, Augustine fell ill. He had about him many of the African bishops, and among other friends, Possidius, whose account of his last hours is preserved to us. "We used continually to converse together," says Possidius, "about the misfortunes in which we were involved, and contemplated God's tremendous judgments which were before our eyes, saying, 'Righteous art Thou, O Lord, and true are Thy judgments.' One day, at meal time, as we talked together, he said, 'Know ye that in this our present calamity, I pray God to vouchsafe to rescue this besieged city, or (if otherwise) to give His servants strength to bear His will, or, at least, to take me to Himself out of this world.' We followed his advice, and both ourselves, and our friends, and the whole city offered up the same prayer with him. On the third month of the siege, he was seized with a fever and took to his bed, and was reduced to the extreme of sickness."
Thus, the latter part of his prayer was put in train for accomplishment, as the former part was subsequently granted by the retreat of the enemy from Hippo. But to continue our narrative :—" He had been used to say, in his familiar conversation, that after receiving baptism, even approved Christians and priests ought not to depart from the body without a fitting and sufficient course of penitence. Accordingly, in the last illness, of which he died, he set himself to write out the special penitential psalms of David, and to place them four by four against the wall, so that, as he lay in bed, in the .days of his sickness, he could see them. And so he used to read and weep abundantly. And lest his attention should be distracted by any one, about ten days before his death, he begged us who were with him to hinder persons entering his room except at the
224 AUGUSTINE AND THE VANDALS. [CHAP. XII.
times when his medical attendants came to see him, or his meals were brought him. This was strictly attended to, and all that time given to prayer. Till this last illness, he had been able to preach the word of God in the church without intermission, with energy and boldness, with healthy mind and judgment. He slept with his fathers in a good old age, sound in limb, unimpaired in sight and hearing, and, as it is written, while we stood by, beheld, and prayed with him. We took part in the sacrifice to God at his funeral, and so buried him."
Though the Vandals failed in their first attack upon Hippo, during Augustine's last illness, they renewed it shortly after his death, under more favourable circumstances. Boniface was defeated in the field, and retired to Italy; and the inhabitants of Hippo left their city. The Vandals entered and burned it, excepting the library of Augustine, which was providentially preserved.
The desolation which, at that era, swept over the face of Africa, was completed by the subsequent invasion of the Saracens. Its five hundred churches are no more. The voyager gazes on the sullen rocks which line its coasts, and discovers no token of Christianity to cheer the gloom. Hippo has ceased to be an episcopal city; but its great teacher, though dead, yet speaks; his voice is gone out into all lands, and his words unto the ends of the world. He needs no dwelling-place, whose home is the Catholic Church; he fears no barbarian or heretical desolation, whose creed is to last unto the end.