The two most comprehensive types of the emotions are pleasure and pain; and each of these is by nature concerned with both body and soul.
The emotions of both pleasure and pain have many consequences.
Thus desire precedes pleasure and delight follows it.
Fear precedes pain and sorrow comes after.
Anger, as a man will see if he reflects on this experience, is an emotion embracing pleasure and pain.
In pleasure there exists even a malevolent tendency, which is the most complex of all the emotions.
In the soul it is boastfulness, covetousness, thirst for honor, rivalry, and malice;
in the body, indiscriminate eating, gluttony, and solitary gormandizing.
Just as pleasure and pain are two plants growing from the body and the soul, so there are many offshoots of these plants,
each of which the master cultivator, reason, weeds and prunes and ties up and waters and thoroughly irrigates, and so tames the jungle of habits and emotions.
For reason is the guide of the virtues, but over the emotions it is sovereign. Observe now first of all that rational judgment is sovereign over the emotions by virtue of the restraining power of self-control.