Proverbs 10

CHAPTER 10

Proverbs 10:1-32 . Here begins the second part of the book, Proverbs 10:1-22:16', which, with the third, Proverbs 22:16-25:28', contains series of proverbs whose sense is complete in one or two verses, and which, having no logical connection, admit of no analysis. The parallelisms of Proverbs 10:1-15:33' are mostly antithetic; and those of Proverbs 16:1-22:16', synthetic. The evidences of art in the structure are very clear, and indicate, probably, a purpose of facilitating the labor of memorizing.

1. wise [and] foolish--as they follow or reject the precepts of wisdom.
maketh . . . father--or, "gladdens a father."
heaviness--or, "grief."

2. Treasures . . . nothing--that is, Ill-gotten gains give no true happiness (compare Proverbs 4:17 , Matthew 6:19 ).
righteousness--especially beneficence ( Psalms 112:9 ).
death--the greatest of all evils.

3. (Compare Psalms 37:16-20 ). The last clause is better: "He will repel the greedy desires of the wicked."

4. slack--literally, "deceitful," failing of its purpose (compare Hosea 7:16 ).
maketh rich--(compare Proverbs 10:22 ).

5. son--as Proverbs 1:8 Proverbs 1:10 , and often.
sleepeth--in indolence, and not for rest.
causeth shame--literally, "is base" (compare Proverbs 14:35 , 17:2 ).

6. Blessings--literally, "Praises." The last clause is better: "The mouth of the wicked covereth (or concealeth) violence (or mischievous devices)" to be executed in due time ( Psalms 5:9 , 10:7 , Romans 3:14 ), and hence has no praises (compare Proverbs 10:11 ).

7. blessed--literally, "for a blessing," or praise.
shall rot--literally, "be worm-eaten," useless and disgusting.

8. wise, &c.--(compare Proverbs 9:8 Proverbs 9:9 Proverbs 9:16 ), opposed to
prating fool--or, "fool of lips of wicked language."
fall--headlong, suddenly.

9. perverteth his ways--acts deceitfully.
known--discovered and punished.

10. Two vices contrasted; hypocrisy, or insinuating evil against one ( Proverbs 6:13 , Psalms 35:19 ), and rashness of speech. In each case, the results are on the evildoers.

11. a well--or, "source" of good to himself and others ( John 7:37 John 7:38 ). On last clause,

12. strifes--or, "litigations."
covereth--by forgiveness and forbearance.

13. In the lips . . . found--hence, not beaten, as the wicked-speaking fool.
void of understanding--( Proverbs 6:32 , 7:7 ).

14. lay up knowledge--that is, as treasures for good use.
mouth . . . destruction--or, "as to the mouth," &c., destruction is near; they expose themselves to evil by prating.

15. Both by trusting in "uncertain riches" ( 1 Timothy 6:17 ), or by the evils of poverty ( Proverbs 30:9 ), men, not fearing God, fall into dangers.

16. The industry of the righteous is alone truly successful, while the earnings of the wicked tempt and lead to sin.

17. keepeth--observes ( Proverbs 3:18 , 4:22 ).
refuseth--or, "turns from reproof," which might direct him aright.

18. Both vices must one day be known and punished, and hence their folly.

19. Much speech involves risk of sin; hence the wisdom of restraining the tongue ( Psalms 39:1 , 1:26 ).

20. Right speech is the fruit of a good heart, but the wicked show theirs to be useless.

21. Fools not only fail to benefit others, as do the righteous, but procure their own ruin (compare Proverbs 10:11 Proverbs 10:17 , Hosea 4:6 ).

22. it maketh, &c.--"it" is emphatic. Riches from God are without the sorrow of ill-gotten wealth (compare Ecclesiastes 2:21-23 , 1 Timothy 6:9 1 Timothy 6:10 1 Timothy 6:17 ).

23. Sin is the pleasure of the wicked; wisdom that of the good.

24. it--the very thing. The wicked get dreaded evil; the righteous, desired good.

25. (Compare Psalms 1:4 , Psalms 37:9 Psalms 37:10 Psalms 37:36 ).
righteous . . . foundation--well laid and firm ( Matthew 7:24 Matthew 7:25 ).

26. that is, causes vexation.

27. (Compare Proverbs 9:11 , Psalms 55:23 ).

28. gladness--in confidence of realizing it.
expectation . . . perish--in disappointment.

29. The way, &c.--that is, God's providence sustains the righteous and overthrows the wicked ( Hosea 14:9 ).

30. (Compare Proverbs 12:3 , Psalms 37:9-11 , 102:28 ).
earth--or, "land of promise."

31. bringeth forth--literally, "germinates" as a plant.
froward--(Compare Proverbs 2:12 Proverbs 2:14 ).
cut off--as an unproductive plant.

32. know--regard and provide for ( Psalms 1:6 ).
frowardness--all kinds of deceit and ill-nature. The word is plural.

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