The Parable of the Vineyard Owner

1 Then He began to speak to them in parables: "A man planted a vineyard, put a fence around it, dug out a pit for a winepress, and built a watchtower. Then he leased it to tenant farmers and went away.

References for Mark 12:1

      2 At harvest time he sent a slave to the farmers to collect some of the fruit of the vineyard from the farmers.
      3 But they took him, beat him, and sent him away empty-handed.
      4 Again he sent another slave to them, and they a hit him on the head and treated him shamefully. b

      References for Mark 12:4

        • a 12:4 - Other mss add threw stones and
        • b 12:4 - Other mss add and sent him off
          5 Then he sent another, and they killed that one. [He] also [sent] many others; they beat some and they killed some.
          6 "He still had one to send, a beloved son. Finally he sent him to them, saying, 'They will respect my son.'
          7 "But those tenant farmers said among themselves, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, and the inheritance will be ours!'
          8 So they seized him, killed him, and threw him out of the vineyard.
          9 "Therefore, what will the owner c of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the farmers and give the vineyard to others.

          References for Mark 12:9

              10 Haven't you read this Scripture: The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. d

              References for Mark 12:10

                • d 12:10 - Lit the head of the corner
                  11 This came from the Lord and is wonderful in our eyes ?" e f

                  References for Mark 12:11

                      12 Because they knew He had said this parable against them, they were looking for a way to arrest Him, but they were afraid of the crowd. So they left Him and went away.

                      God and Caesar

                      13 Then theyg sent some of the Pharisees and the Herodians to Him to trap Him by what He said.h

                      References for Mark 12:13

                        • g 12:13 - Mk 11:27
                        • h 12:13 - Lit trap Him in (a) word
                          14 When they came, they said to Him, "Teacher, we know You are truthful and defer to no one, for You don't show partialityi but teach truthfully the way of God. Is it lawful to pay taxes to Caesar or not?

                          References for Mark 12:14

                            • i 12:14 - Lit don't look on the face of men; that is, on the outward appearance
                              15 Should we pay, or should we not pay?" But knowing their hypocrisy, He said to them, "Why are you testing Me? Bring Me a denarius to look at."
                              16 So they brought one. "Whose image and inscription is this?" He asked them. "Caesar's," they said.
                              17 Then Jesus told them, "Give back to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's." And they were amazed at Him.

                              The Sadducees and the Resurrection

                              18 Some Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection, came to Him and questioned Him:

                              References for Mark 12:18

                                  19 "Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man's brother dies , leaves his wife behind, and leaves no child, his brother should take the wife and produce offspring for his brother. j

                                  References for Mark 12:19

                                    • j 12:19 - Gn 38:8; Dt 25:5
                                      20 There were seven brothers. The first took a wife, and dying, left no offspring.
                                      21 The second also took her, and he died, leaving no offspring. And the third likewise.
                                      22 The seven alsok left no offspring. Last of all, the woman died too.

                                      References for Mark 12:22

                                        • k 12:22 - Other mss add had taken her and
                                          23 In the resurrection, when they rise,l whose wife will she be, since the seven had married her?"m

                                          References for Mark 12:23

                                            • l 12:23 - Other mss omit when they rise
                                            • m 12:23 - Lit the seven had her as a wife
                                              24 Jesus told them, "Are you not deceived because you don't know the Scriptures or the power of God?
                                              25 For when they rise from the dead, they neither marry nor are given in marriage but are like angels in heaven.
                                              26 Now concerning the dead being raised-haven't you read in the book of Moses, in the passage about the burning bush, how God spoke to him: I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob ? n

                                              References for Mark 12:26

                                                  27 He is not God of the dead but of the living. You are badly deceived."

                                                  The Primary Commandments

                                                  28 One of the scribes approached. When he heard them debating and saw that Jesus answered them well, he asked Him, "Which commandment is the most important of all?"o

                                                  References for Mark 12:28

                                                    • o 12:28 - Lit Which commandment is first of all?
                                                      29 "This is the most important," p Jesus answered: Listen, Israel! The Lord our God, the Lord is One. q

                                                      References for Mark 12:29

                                                        • p 12:29 - Other mss add of all the commandments
                                                        • q 12:29 - Or The Lord our God is one Lord.
                                                          30 Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength. r s

                                                          References for Mark 12:30

                                                            • r 12:30 - Dt 6:4-5; Jos 22:5
                                                            • s 12:30 - Other mss add This is the first commandment.
                                                              31 "The second is: Love your neighbor as yourself. t There is no other commandment greater than these."

                                                              References for Mark 12:31

                                                                  32 Then the scribe said to Him, "You are right, Teacher! You have correctly said that He is One, and there is no one else except Him.
                                                                  33 And to love Him with all your heart, with all your understanding,u and with all your strength, and to love your neighbor as yourself, is far more [important] than all the burnt offerings and sacrifices."

                                                                  References for Mark 12:33

                                                                    • u 12:33 - Other mss add with all your soul
                                                                      34 When Jesus saw that he answered intelligently, He said to him, "You are not far from the kingdom of God." And no one dared to question Him any longer.

                                                                      The Question about the Messiah

                                                                      35 So Jesus asked this question as He taught in the temple complex, "How can the scribes say that the Messiah is the Son of David?

                                                                      References for Mark 12:35

                                                                          36 David himself says by the Holy Spirit: The Lord declared to my Lord, 'Sit at My right hand until I put Your enemies under Your feet.' v

                                                                          References for Mark 12:36

                                                                              37 David himself calls Him 'Lord'; how then can the Messiah be his Son?" And the large crowd was listening to Him with delight.

                                                                              Warning against the Scribes

                                                                              38 He also said in His teaching, "Beware of the scribes, who want to go around in long robes, and who want greetings in the marketplaces,

                                                                              References for Mark 12:38

                                                                                  39 the front seats in the synagogues, and the places of honor at banquets.
                                                                                  40 They devour widows' houses and say long prayers just for show. These will receive harsher punishment."

                                                                                  The Widow's Gift

                                                                                  41 Sitting across from the temple treasury, He watched how the crowd dropped money into the treasury. Many rich people were putting in large sums.

                                                                                  References for Mark 12:41

                                                                                      42 And a poor widow came and dropped in two tiny coins worth very little.w/ 64 of a daily wage, was the smallest Roman coin.

                                                                                      References for Mark 12:42

                                                                                        • w 12:42 - Lit dropped in two lepta, which is a quadrans; the lepton was the smallest and least valuable Gk coin in use. The quadrans, 1
                                                                                          43 Summoning His disciples, He said to them, "I assure you: This poor widow has put in more than all those giving to the temple treasury.
                                                                                          44 For they all gave out of their surplus, but she out of her poverty has put in everything she possessed-all she had to live on."