1 When He saw the crowds, He went up on the mountain, and after He sat down, His disciples came to Him.
2 Thena He began to teach them, saying:

References for Matthew 5:2

    • a 5:2 - Lit Then opening His mouth

      The Beatitudes

      3 "Blessed are the poor in spirit, because the kingdom of heaven is theirs.

      References for Matthew 5:3

          4 Blessed are those who mourn, because they will be comforted.
          5 Blessed are the gentle, because they will inherit the earth.
          6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness, because they will be filled.
          7 Blessed are the merciful, because they will be shown mercy.
          8 Blessed are the pure in heart, because they will see God.
          9 Blessed are the peacemakers, because they will be called sons of God.
          10 Blessed are those who are persecuted for righteousness, because the kingdom of heaven is theirs.
          11 "Blessed are you when they insult you and persecute you and falsely say every kind of evil against you because of Me.
          12 Be glad and rejoice, because your reward is great in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

          Believers Are Salt and Light

          13 "You are the salt of the earth. But if the salt should lose its taste, how can it be made salty? It's no longer good for anything but to be thrown out and trampled on by men.

          References for Matthew 5:13

              14 "You are the light of the world. A city situated on a hill cannot be hidden.
              15 No one lights a lamp and puts it under a basket, b but rather on a lampstand, and it gives light for all who are in the house.

              References for Matthew 5:15

                • b 5:15 - A large basket used to measure grain
                  16 In the same way, let your light shine c before men, so that they may see your good works and give glory to your Father in heaven.

                  References for Matthew 5:16

                    • c 5:16 - Or way, your light must shine

                      Christ Fulfills the Law

                      17 "Don't assume that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill.

                      References for Matthew 5:17

                          18 For I assure you: Until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter d or one stroke of a letter will pass from the law until all things are accomplished.

                          References for Matthew 5:18

                            • d 5:18 - Or not one iota; iota is the smallest letter of the Gk alphabet.
                              19 Therefore, whoever breaks one of the least of these commandments and teaches people to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven. But whoever practices and teaches [these commandments] will be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
                              20 For I tell you, unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.

                              Murder Begins in the Heart

                              21 "You have heard that it was said to our ancestors, e Do not murder , f and whoever murders will be subject to judgment.

                              References for Matthew 5:21

                                • e 5:21 - Lit to the ancients
                                • f 5:21 - Ex 20:13; Dt 5:17
                                  22 But I tell you, everyone who is angry with his brother g will be subject to judgment. And whoever says to his brother, 'Fool!' h will be subject to the Sanhedrin. But whoever says, 'You moron!' will be subject to hellfire. i

                                  References for Matthew 5:22

                                    • g 5:22 - Other mss add without a cause
                                    • h 5:22 - Lit Raca, an Aram term of abuse similar to "airhead"
                                    • i 5:22 - Lit the gehenna of fire
                                      23 So if you are offering your gift on the altar, and there you remember that your brother has something against you,
                                      24 leave your gift there in front of the altar. First go and be reconciled with your brother, and then come and offer your gift.
                                      25 Reach a settlement quickly with your adversary while you're on the way with him, or your adversary will hand you over to the judge, the judge to j the officer, and you will be thrown into prison.

                                      References for Matthew 5:25

                                        • j 5:25 - Other mss read judge will hand you over to
                                          26 I assure you: You will never get out of there until you have paid the last penny! k/ 64 of a daily wage

                                          References for Matthew 5:26

                                            • k 5:26 - Lit quadrans, the smallest and least valuable Roman coin, worth 1

                                              Adultery in the Heart

                                              27 "You have heard that it was said, Do not commit adultery. l

                                              References for Matthew 5:27

                                                • l 5:27 - Ex 20:14; Dt 5:18
                                                  28 But I tell you, everyone who looks at a woman to lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.
                                                  29 If your right eye causes you to sin, gouge it out and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of the parts of your body than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.
                                                  30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of the parts of your body than for your whole body to go into hell!

                                                  Divorce Practices Censured

                                                  31 "It was also said, Whoever divorces his wife must give her a written notice of divorce. m

                                                  References for Matthew 5:31

                                                      32 But I tell you, everyone who divorces his wife, except in a case of sexual immorality, n = fornication, or possibly a violation of Jewish marriage laws causes her to commit adultery. And whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.

                                                      References for Matthew 5:32

                                                        • n 5:32 - Gk porneia

                                                          Tell the Truth

                                                          33 "Again, you have heard that it was said to our ancestors, o You must not break your oath, but you must keep your oaths to the Lord. p

                                                          References for Matthew 5:33

                                                            • o 5:33 - Lit to the ancients
                                                            • p 5:33 - Lv 19:12; Nm 30:2; Dt 23:21
                                                              34 But I tell you, don't take an oath at all: either by heaven, because it is God's throne;
                                                              35 or by the earth, because it is His footstool; or by Jerusalem, because it is the city of the great King.
                                                              36 Neither should you swear by your head, because you cannot make a single hair white or black.
                                                              37 But let your word 'yes' be 'yes,' and your 'no' be 'no.' q Anything more than this is from the evil one.

                                                              References for Matthew 5:37

                                                                • q 5:37 - Say what you mean and mean what you say

                                                                  Go the Second Mile

                                                                  38 "You have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. r

                                                                  References for Matthew 5:38

                                                                    • r 5:38 - Ex 21:24; Lv 24:20; Dt 19:21
                                                                      39 But I tell you, don't resist s an evildoer. On the contrary, if anyone slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also.

                                                                      References for Matthew 5:39

                                                                        • s 5:39 - Or don't set yourself against, or don't retaliate against
                                                                          40 As for the one who wants to sue you and take away your shirt, t let him have your coat u as well.

                                                                          References for Matthew 5:40

                                                                            • t 5:40 - Lit tunic inner garment
                                                                            • u 5:40 - Lit robe, or garment outer garment
                                                                              41 And if anyone forces v you to go one mile, go with him two.

                                                                              References for Matthew 5:41

                                                                                • v 5:41 - Roman soldiers could require people to carry loads for them.
                                                                                  42 Give to the one who asks you, and don't turn away from the one who wants to borrow from you.

                                                                                  Love Your Enemies

                                                                                  43 "You have heard that it was said, Love your neighbor w and hate your enemy.

                                                                                  References for Matthew 5:43

                                                                                      44 But I tell you, love your enemies x and pray for those who y persecute you,

                                                                                      References for Matthew 5:44

                                                                                        • x 5:44 - Other mss add bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you,
                                                                                        • y 5:44 - Other mss add mistreat you and
                                                                                          45 so that you may be z sons of your Father in heaven. For He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.

                                                                                          References for Matthew 5:45

                                                                                            • z 5:45 - Or may become, or may show yourselves to be
                                                                                              46 For if you love those who love you, what reward will you have? Don't even the tax collectors do the same?
                                                                                              47 And if you greet only your brothers, what are you doing out of the ordinary? { Don't even the Gentiles | do the same?

                                                                                              References for Matthew 5:47

                                                                                                • { 5:47 - Lit doing more, or doing that is superior
                                                                                                • | 5:47 - Other mss read tax collectors
                                                                                                  48 Be perfect, therefore, as your heavenly Father is perfect.