One of the most arresting and suggestive metaphors in the Bible is that of fire, a phenomenon common to all cultures ancient and modern and one that lends itself to a variety of imagery. The most prevalent term for fire in the Hebrew Bible is es [vea]. The Greek word phos [fw'"], also normally rendered "light, " occurs a couple times in the New Testament as "fire" ( Mark 14:54 ; Luke 22:56 ). The usual word for fire in the New Testament is pur [pu'r], the regular Greek translation of Hebrew es [vea] in the Septuagint.
As a commonplace in ancient Israel, fire obviously is to be taken literally in most of the several hundred references to it in the Bible. Its figurative or theological attestations are also numerous, however, generally relating to some manifestation of God's being or action.
Fire, as theophany of existence, communicates, first of all, the very presence of God. This is especially evident in the burning bush from which God spoke to Moses ( Exod 3:2-6 ). Here fire is a manifestation of God himself, for Moses turned away from the sight "because he was afraid to look at God" (v. 6). Similar to this is Yahweh's descent upon Mount Sinai "in fire" ( Exod 19:18 ; cf. Deuteronomy 4:11-12 Deuteronomy 4:15 Deuteronomy 4:33 Deuteronomy 4:36 ). In the New Testament Paul describes the second coming of Christ as "in blazing fire" ( 2 Th 1:7 ), an appearance that carries overtones of judgment as well as mere presence. Also akin to Old Testament imagery is John's vision of Jesus with eyes "like blazing fire" ( Rev 1:14 ; 2:18 ; 19:12 ), again in judgment contexts.
It is not always possible to distinguish the presence of God from his glory for, indeed, glory is frequently a figure itself for divine presence. However, a number of passages focus on fire as synonymous with or in association with God's glory. For example, to the Israelites at Sinai "the glory of the Lord looked like a consuming fire" ( Exod 24:17 ; cf. Leviticus 9:23 Leviticus 9:24 ; Deut 5:24 ). In visions of God in his glory in both Old and New Testaments, fire is a regular phenomenon.
A special use of fire imagery in the New Testament is that connected with baptism with fire. John the Baptist predicted that Jesus would baptize "with the Holy Spirit and with fire" ( Matt 3:11 ; cf. Luke 3:16 ), a promise that was fulfilled on the day of Pentecost. Then "tongues of fire" rested upon those gathered in the upper room with the result that they "were filled with the Holy Spirit" ( Acts 2:3-4 ). The fire here is a manifestation of God, in the case of the Third Person of the Godhead, a theological conception unknown to the Old Testament.
Fire as theophany of action reveals God at work in a number of ways. One of the earliest and clearest of these ways is his appearance in a pillar of fire that led the people of Israel out of Egypt and through the Sinai deserts. Another instance of God's use of fire as an active manifestation of his presence is his sending fire from heaven to consume sacrifices offered up to him on special and unusual occasions. The first of these inaugurated Aaron's ministry as priest. Having blessed the people, Moses and Aaron witnessed the appearance of the glory of the Lord, a striking manifestation of which was fire that "came out from the presence of the Lord" to consume the sacrifices already placed on the altar ( Lev 9:23-24 ). Other examples of fire as the expression of God's acceptance of offerings are those of Gideon ( Judges 6:19-24 ) and of the father and mother of Samson ( Judges 13:15-20 ). In both cases Yahweh is present in the person of the angel who touches the altar, causing the sacrifices to erupt in flame.
Because of fire's heat and destructive capacity, it frequently appears in the Bible as a symbol of God's anger and of the judgment and destruction that sometimes are extensions of that anger. The psalmist employs fire as a simile for divine displeasure when he asks the Lord, "How long will your wrath burn like fire?" ( Psalm 89:46 ) Isaiah, referring to God's coming in judgment, sees him "coming with fire" and bringing down his rebuke "with flames of fire" (66:15). Jeremiah says in reference to the destruction of Jerusalem that Yahweh "poured out his wrath like fire" ( Lam 2:4 ). Ezekiel uses the term "fiery anger" to speak of God's outpoured judgment, especially when speaking of the impending Babylonian conquest ( 21:31 ; 22:31 ). This is also the language by which he describes the overthrow of Gog in the end times. In his "zeal and fiery wrath" he will bring about massive calamity ( 38:19 ).
In other passages, the anger of God is not only metaphorically represented by fire, but fire becomes a literal vehicle of his wrath. At Taberah in the Sinai desert Yahweh's "anger was aroused" and "fire from the Lord burned among" the people ( Num 11:1 ). And the rebellion of Korah and his followers also resulted in many of them perishing by fire, a manifestation of God's hot anger ( Num 16:35 ; 26:10 ; Lev 10:2 ). A most impressive display of fire as an instrument of judgment is the destruction of the messengers of Ahaziah of Israel who attempted to seize Elijah the prophet only to be struck with fire "from heaven" ( 2 Kings 1:10 2 Kings 1:12 2 Kings 1:14 ). This is probably an example of lightning, which otherwise is clearly a means of inflicting divine judgment and destruction (cf. Exod 9:23-24 ; Job 1:16 ; Psalm 18:13-14 ).
The same imagery of fire as a sign of God's anger and judgment continues in the New Testament. James and John asked Jesus whether or not they should invoke fire from heaven in order to destroy the Samaritans ( Luke 9:54 ). Paul speaks of fire as a purifying agent capable of testing the quality of one's life and works ( 1 Cor 3:13 ). Most commonly, fire is associated with the judgment of hell ( Matt 3:12 ; 5:22 ; 18:8-9 ; Mark 9:43 Mark 9:48 ; Luke 3:17 ; 16:24 ; James 3:6 ; Jude 7 ; Rev 20:14-15 ), or with the destruction of the old heavens and earth in preparation for the new ( 2 Peter 3:10 2 Peter 3:12 ).
Eugene H. Merrill
Bibliography. E. M. Good, IDB, 2:268-69; J. Patrick, Dictionary of the Bible, 2:9-10; J. C. Slayton, 5:372-73; H. Van Broekhoven, Jr., ISBE, 2:305-6.
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Torches were sometimes carried by the soldiers in battle ( Judges 7:16 ).
God's word is also likened unto fire ( Jeremiah 23:29 ). It is referred to as an emblem of severe trials or misfortunes ( Zechariah 12:6 ; Luke 12:49 ; 1 Corinthians 3:13 1 Corinthians 3:15 ; 1 Peter 1:7 ), and of eternal punishment ( Matthew 5:22 ; Mark 9:44 ; Revelation 14:10 ; 21:8 ).
is represented as the symbol of Jehovahs presence and the instrument of his power, in the way either of approval or of destruction. ( Exodus 3:2 ; 14:19 ) etc. There could not be a better symbol for Jehovah than this of fire, it being immaterial, mysterious, but visible, warming, cheering, comforting, but also terrible and consuming. Parallel with this application of fire and with its symbolical meaning are to be noted the similar use for sacrificial purposes and the respect paid to it, or to the heavenly bodies as symbols of deity, which prevailed among so many nations of antiquity, and of which the traces are not even now extinct; e.g. the Sabean and Magian systems of worship. ( Isaiah 27:9 ) Fire for sacred purposes obtained elsewhere than from the altar was called "strange fire," and for the use of such Nadab and Abihu were punished with death by fire from God. ( Leviticus 10:1 Leviticus 10:2 ; Numbers 3:4 ; 26:61 )
fir ('esh; pur):
These are the common words for fire, occurring very frequently. 'Ur, "light" (Isaiah 24:15 the King James Version; compare the Revised Version (British and American); Isaiah 31:9, and see FIRES), nur (Aramaic) (Daniel 3:22) are found a few times, also 'eshshah (Jeremiah 6:29), and be`erah (Exodus 22:6), once each. Acts 28:2,3 has pura, "pyre," and Mark 14:54; Luke 22:56, phos, "light," the Revised Version (British and American) "in the light (of the fire)." "To set on fire," yatsath (2 Samuel 14:31), lahat (Deuteronomy 32:22, etc.), phlogizo (James 3:6).
Fire was regarded by primitive peoples as supernatural in origin and specially Divine. Molech, the fire-god, and other deities were worshipped by certain Canaanitish and other tribes with human sacrifices (Deuteronomy 12:31; 2 Kings 17:31; Psalms 106:37), and, although this was specially forbidden to the Israelites (Leviticus 18:21; Deuteronomy 12:31; 18:10), they too often lapsed into the practice (2 Kings 16:3; 21:6; Jeremiah 7:31; Ezekiel 20:26,31).
See MOLECH; IDOLATRY.
1. Literal Usage:
Fire in the Old Testament is specially associated with the Divine presence, e.g. in the making of the Covenant with Abraham (Genesis 15:17), in the burning bush. (Exodus 3:2-4), in the pillar of fire (Exodus 13:21), on Sinai (Exodus 19:18), in the flame on the altar (Judges 13:20). Yahweh was "the God that answereth by fire" (1 Kings 18:24,38). In the Law, therefore, sacrifices and offerings (including incense) were to be made by fire (Exodus 12:8,9,10; Leviticus 1). Fire from Yahweh signified the acceptance of certain special and separate sacrifices (Judges 6:21; 1 Kings 18:38; 1 Chronicles 21:26). In Leviticus 9:24 the sacrificial fire "came forth from before Yahweh." The altar-fire was to be kept continually burning (Leviticus 6:12,13); offering by "strange fire" (other than the sacred altar-fire) was punished by "fire from before Yahweh" (Leviticus 10:1,2). Fire came from heaven also at the consecration of Solomon's Temple (2 Chronicles 7:1).
According to 2 Maccabees 1:19-22, at the time of the Captivity priests hid the sacred fire in a well, and Nehemiah found it again, in a miraculous way, for the second Temple. Later, Maccabeus is said to have restored the fire by "striking stones and taking fire out of them" (10:3).
Fire was a frequent instrument of the Divine primitive wrath (Genesis 19:24; Exodus 9:23 (lightning); Numbers 11:1; 16:35, etc.; Psalms 104:4, the American Standard Revised Version "Who maketh .... flames of fire his ministers"). Fire shall yet dissolve the world (2 Peter 3:12). It was frequently used by the Israelites as a means of destruction of idolatrous objects and the cities of their enemies (Deuteronomy 7:5,25; 12:3; 13:16; Joshua 6:24; Jgs, frequently); sometimes also of punishment (Leviticus 20:14; 21:9; Joshua 7:25; 2 Maccabees 7:5).
The domestic use of fire was, as among other peoples, for heating, cooking, lighting, etc., but according to the Law no fire could be kindled on the Sabbath day (Exodus 35:3). It was employed also for melting (Exodus 32:24), and refining (Numbers 31:23; 3:2,3, etc.). For the sacrificial fire wood was used as fuel (Genesis 22:3,1; Leviticus 6:12); for ordinary purposes, also charcoal (Proverbs 25:22; Isaiah 6:6, the Revised Version, margin "or hot stone"; Habakkuk 3:5, the Revised Version (British and American) "fiery bolts," margin "or burning coals"; John 21:9, "a fire of coals" the Revised Version, margin "Gr, a fire of charcoal"; Romans 12:20); branches (Numbers 15:32; 1 Kings 17:12); thorns (Psalms 58:9; 118:12; Ecclesiastes 7:6; Isaiah 33:12); grass and other herbage (Matthew 6:30; Luke 12:28).
2. Figurative Use:
Fire was an emblem
(1) of Yahweh in His glory (Daniel 7:9);
(2) in His holiness (Isaiah 6:4);
(6) of His wrath against sin and punishment of the wicked (Deuteronomy 9:3; Psalms 18:8; 89:46; Isaiah 5:24; 30:33, "a Topheth is prepared of old"; Matthew 3:10-12; 5:22, the Revised Version (British and American) "the hell of fire," margin "Greek, Gehenna of fire"; see Isaiah 30:33; Jeremiah 7:31; Matthew 13:40,42; 25:41, "eternal fire"; Mark 9:45-49; see Isaiah 66:24; 2 Thessalonians 1:7; Hebrews 10:27; Jude 1:7);
(9) of that which guides men (Isaiah 50:10,11);
(10) of the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:3);
(11) of the glorified Christ (Revelation 1:14);
(12) of kindness in its melting power (Romans 12:20);
(15) of the tongue in its evil aspects (James 3:5,6);
W. L. Walker
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