Acts 27 LEB

Paul and His Associates Sail for Rome

1 And when it was decided [that] we would sail away to Italy, they handed over Paul and some other prisoners to a centurion {named}a Julius of the Augustanb Cohort.

References for Acts 27:1

    • Ҳ 27:1 - Literally "by name"
    • ҳ 27:1 - The meaning and significance of the title "Augustan" is highly debated, as is the precise identification of this military unit; it may be an honorary unit designation given to auxiliary or provincial troops
      2 And we went aboard a ship from Adramyttium that was about to sail to the places along the [coast]c of Asiad [and]e put out to sea. Aristarchus, a Macedonian from Thessalonica, was with us.

      References for Acts 27:2

        • Ҵ 27:2 - *The word "[coast]" is not in the Greek text but is implied
        • ҵ 27:2 - A reference to the Roman province of Asia (modern Asia Minor)
        • Ҷ 27:2 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("went aboard") has been translated as a finite verb
          3 And on the next [day], we put in at Sidon. And Julius, treating Paul kindly, allowed [him]f to go to [his]g friends {to be cared for}.h

          References for Acts 27:3

            • ҷ 27:3 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
            • Ҹ 27:3 - *Literally "the"; the Greek article is used here as a possessive pronoun
            • ҹ 27:3 - Literally "to experience care"
              4 And from there we put out to sea [and]i sailed under the lee of Cyprus, because the winds were against [us].j

              References for Acts 27:4

                • Һ 27:4 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("put out to sea") has been translated as a finite verb
                • һ 27:4 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                  5 And [after we]k had sailed across the open sea along Cilicia and Pamphylia, we put in at Myra in Lycia.

                  References for Acts 27:5

                    • Ҽ 27:5 - *Here "[after]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("had sailed across") which is understood as temporal
                      6 And there the centurion found an Alexandrian ship sailing for Italy [and]l put us {on board}m it.

                      References for Acts 27:6

                        • ҽ 27:6 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("found") has been translated as a finite verb
                        • Ҿ 27:6 - Literally "into"
                          7 And sailing slowly, in many days and with difficulty we camen to Cnidus. [Because]o the wind did not permit us to go further, we sailed under the lee of Crete off Salmone.

                          References for Acts 27:7

                            • ҿ 27:7 - *Here this participle ("came") has been translated as a finite verb in keeping with English style
                            • Ӏ 27:7 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle ("permit ... to go further")
                              8 And sailing along its coast with difficulty, we came to a certain place called Fair Havens, near which was the town [of] Lasea.
                              9 And [because]p considerable time had passed and the voyage was now dangerous because even the Fastq was already over, Paul strongly recommended,

                              References for Acts 27:9

                                • Ӂ 27:9 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle ("had passed")
                                • ӂ 27:9 - A reference to the Jewish Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) which occurs in mid-autumn
                                  10 saying to them, "Men, I perceive that the voyage is going {to end}r with disaster and great loss, not only of the cargo and the ship, but also of our lives!"

                                  References for Acts 27:10

                                    • Ӄ 27:10 - Literally "to be"
                                      11 But the centurion was convinced even more by the shipmaster and the shipowner than by what was said by Paul.
                                      12 And [because]s the harbor was unsuitable for spending the winter in, the majority decided on a plan to put out to sea from there, if somehow they could arrive at Phoenix, a harbor of Crete facing toward the southwest and toward the northwest, to spend the winter [there].t

                                      References for Acts 27:12

                                        • ӄ 27:12 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle ("was")
                                        • Ӆ 27:12 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation

                                          A Violent Storm at Sea

                                          13 And [when]u a southwest wind began to blow gently, [because they]v thought [they] could accomplish their purpose, they weighed anchor [and]w sailed close along Crete.

                                          References for Acts 27:13

                                            • ӆ 27:13 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle ("began to blow gently")
                                            • Ӈ 27:13 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("thought") which is understood as causal
                                            • ӈ 27:13 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("weighed anchor") has been translated as a finite verb
                                              14 But not long afterward a wind like a hurricane, called the northeaster,x rushed down from it.y

                                              References for Acts 27:14

                                                • Ӊ 27:14 - Literally "Euraquilo," a violent northern wind
                                                • ӊ 27:14 - That is, from the island of Crete
                                                  15 And [when]z the ship was caught and [was] not able to head into the wind, we gave way [and]{ were driven [along].

                                                  References for Acts 27:15

                                                    • Ӌ 27:15 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle ("was caught")
                                                    • ӌ 27:15 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("gave way") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                      16 And running under the lee of a certain small island called Cauda, we were able with difficulty to get the ship's boat under control.
                                                      17 [After]| hoisting {it up},} they made use of supports to undergird the ship. And [because they]~ were afraid lest they run aground on the Syrtis, they lowered the sea anchor [and] thus were driven [along].

                                                      References for Acts 27:17

                                                        • Ӎ 27:17 - *Here "[after]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("hoisting") which is understood as temporal
                                                        • ӎ 27:17 - Literally "which"
                                                        • ӏ 27:17 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("were afraid") which is understood as causal
                                                        • Ӑ 27:17 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("lowered") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                          18 And [because]€ we were violently battered by the storm, on the next [day] {they began} jettisoning [the cargo],‚

                                                          References for Acts 27:18

                                                            • ӑ 27:18 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle ("battered by the storm")
                                                            • Ӓ 27:18 - Literally "they began to carry out"
                                                            • ӓ 27:18 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                              19 and on the third [day] they threw overboard the gear of the ship with their own hands.
                                                              20 But [when]ƒ neither sun nor stars appeared for many days, and [with] not a little bad weather confronting [us],„ finally all hope was abandoned [that] we would be saved.

                                                              References for Acts 27:20

                                                                • Ӕ 27:20 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle ("appeared")
                                                                • ӕ 27:20 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                  21 And [because]… many were experiencing lack of appetite, at that time Paul stood up in their midst [and]† said, "Men, [you] ought to have followed my [advice] not to put out to sea from Crete, and [thus] avoided this damage and loss!

                                                                  References for Acts 27:21

                                                                    • Ӗ 27:21 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the causal genitive absolute participle ("were experiencing")
                                                                    • ӗ 27:21 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("stood up") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                                      22 And now I urge you to cheer up, for there will be no loss of life from among you, but only of the ship.
                                                                      23 For this night an angel of the God whose I am and whom I serve came to me,
                                                                      24 saying, 'Do not be afraid, Paul! It is necessary [for] you to stand before Caesar, and behold, God has graciously granted you all who are sailing with you.'
                                                                      25 Therefore keep up your courage, men, for I believe God that it will be like this--according to {the}‡ way it was told to me.

                                                                      References for Acts 27:25

                                                                        • Ә 27:25 - Literally "which"
                                                                          26 But it is necessary [that] we run aground on some island."
                                                                          27 And when the fourteenth night had come, [as]ˆ we were being driven in the Adriatic Sea about the middle of the night, the sailors suspected {they were approaching some land}.‰

                                                                          References for Acts 27:27

                                                                            • ә 27:27 - *Here "[as]" is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle ("were being driven")
                                                                            • Ӛ 27:27 - Literally "some land was approaching them"
                                                                              28 And taking soundings, they found twenty fathoms. So going on a little [further] and taking soundings again, they found fifteen fathoms.
                                                                              29 And [because they]Š were afraid lest somewhere we run aground against rough places, they threw down four anchors from the stern [and]‹ prayed for day to come.

                                                                              References for Acts 27:29

                                                                                • ӛ 27:29 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("were afraid") which is understood as causal
                                                                                • Ӝ 27:29 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("threw down") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                                                  30 And [when]Πthe sailors were seeking to escape from the ship and were lowering the ship's boat into the sea, pretending as if they were going to lay out anchors from the bow,

                                                                                  References for Acts 27:30

                                                                                    • ӝ 27:30 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the temporal genitive absolute participle ("were seeking")
                                                                                      31 Paul said to the centurion and the soldiers, "Unless these [men] remain with the ship, you cannot be saved!"
                                                                                      32 Then the soldiers cut away the ropes of the ship's boat and let it fall away.

                                                                                      References for Acts 27:32

                                                                                        • Ӟ 27:32 - Or "let it drift away"
                                                                                          33 And until the day was about to come, Paul was urging [them] all to take [some] food, saying, "Today [is the] fourteenth day you have waited [anxiously], [and]Ž you have continued without eating, having taken nothing.

                                                                                          References for Acts 27:33

                                                                                            • ӟ 27:33 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("have waited") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                                                              34 Therefore I urge you to take [some] food, for this is necessary for your preservation. For not a hair from your head will be lost."
                                                                                              35 And [after he] said these [things] and took bread, he gave thanks to God in front of [them] all, and [after] breaking [it],‘ he began to eat.

                                                                                              References for Acts 27:35

                                                                                                • Ӡ 27:35 - *Here "[after]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("said") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                                • ӡ 27:35 - *Here "[after]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("breaking") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                                • Ӣ 27:35 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                                  36 So they all were’ encouraged and partook of food themselves.

                                                                                                  References for Acts 27:36

                                                                                                    • ӣ 27:36 - *Here this participle ("were") has been translated as a finite verb in keeping with English style
                                                                                                      37 (Now we were [in] all two hundred seventy six persons on the ship.)
                                                                                                      38 And [when they]“ had eaten their fill of food, they lightened the ship [by]” throwing the wheat• into the sea.

                                                                                                      References for Acts 27:38

                                                                                                        • Ӥ 27:38 - *Here "[when]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("had eaten their fill") which is understood as temporal
                                                                                                        • ӥ 27:38 - *Here "[by]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("throwing") which is understood as means
                                                                                                        • Ӧ 27:38 - Or "grain"

                                                                                                          The Shipwreck

                                                                                                          39 Now when day came, they did not recognize the land, but they noticed a certain bay having a beach, onto which they decided to run the ship ashore if they could.

                                                                                                          References for Acts 27:39

                                                                                                              40 And slipping the anchors, they left [them]– in the sea, at the same time loosening the ropes— of the steering oars. And hoisting the foresail to the [wind] that was blowing, they held course for the beach.

                                                                                                              References for Acts 27:40

                                                                                                                • ӧ 27:40 - *Here the direct object is supplied from context in the English translation
                                                                                                                • Ө 27:40 - Or "bands" (referring to the linkage that tied the steering oars together)
                                                                                                                  41 But falling into a place of crosscurrents,˜ they ran the ship aground. And the bow stuck fast [and]™ stayed immovable, but the stern was being broken up by the violence.š

                                                                                                                  References for Acts 27:41

                                                                                                                    • ө 27:41 - Or "a reef"; literally "a place of two seas," an expression of uncertain meaning but most likely a nautical technical term for some adverse sea condition
                                                                                                                    • Ӫ 27:41 - *Here "[and]" is supplied because the previous participle ("stuck fast") has been translated as a finite verb
                                                                                                                    • ӫ 27:41 - Some manuscripts have "the violence of the waves"
                                                                                                                      42 Now the plan of the soldiers was that they would kill the prisoners lest any escape [by]› swimming away,

                                                                                                                      References for Acts 27:42

                                                                                                                        • Ӭ 27:42 - *Here "[by]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("swimming away") which is understood as means
                                                                                                                          43 but the centurion, [because he]œ wanted to save Paul, prevented them {from doing what they intended}, and gave orders [that] those who were able to swim should jump in first to get to the land,

                                                                                                                          References for Acts 27:43

                                                                                                                            • ӭ 27:43 - *Here "[because]" is supplied as a component of the participle ("wanted") which is understood as causal
                                                                                                                            • Ӯ 27:43 - Literally "of the intention"
                                                                                                                              44 and [then] the rest, [some] of whom [floated]ž on planks and [some] of whom on anything [that was] from the ship. And in this way all were brought safely to the land.

                                                                                                                              References for Acts 27:44

                                                                                                                                • ӯ 27:44 - *The word "[floated]" is not in the Greek text, but is supplied in the translation for clarity