Judgment against the Leaders of Ephraim

1 Ah! The garland of the pride of the drunkards of Ephraim and [the] withering flower of the glory of his beauty, which [is] at [the] head of {the rich valley}, {ones overcome} with wine!

References for Isaiah 28:1

    • a 28:1 - Literally "a valley of fat"
    • b 28:1 - Literally "ones struck"
      2 Look! The Lord has [a] mighty and strong [one], like a rainstorm of hail, a wind storm of destruction, like a rainstorm of mighty overflowing waters, he will put [them] to the earth with [his] hand.
      3 The garland of the pride of the drunkards of Ephraim will be trampled by feet,

      References for Isaiah 28:3

        • c 28:3 - The Hebrew is plural
          4 and [the] withering flower of the glory of its beauty which [is] at [the] head of {the rich valley} will be like its early fig before summer, {which the one who sees it swallows} while it [is] still in his hand.

          References for Isaiah 28:4

            • d 28:4 - Literally "a valley of fat"
            • e 28:4 - Literally "Which, when the one who sees it sees it, he swallows it"
              5 In that day, Yahweh of hosts will become a garland of glory and a diadem of beauty to the remnant of his people,
              6 and a spirit of justice to the one who sits over judgment, and strength [to] those who turn back [the] battle [at the] gate.
              7 And these also stagger because of wine and stagger because of strong drink; priest and prophet stagger because of strong drink; they are confused because of wine. They stagger because of strong drink; they err in vision. They stagger [in the] rendering of a decision,

              References for Isaiah 28:7

                • f 28:7 - Or "swallowed"
                  8 for all [the] tables are full [of] disgusting vomit, {with no place left}.

                  References for Isaiah 28:8

                    • g 28:8 - Literally "without a place"
                      9 [To] whom will he teach knowledge, and [to] whom will he explain [the] message? Those who are weaned from milk, [those] taken from [the] breast?
                      10 For [it is] blah-blah upon blah-blah, blah-blah upon blah-blah, gah-gah upon gah-gah, gah-gah upon gah-gah, a little here, a little there.

                      References for Isaiah 28:10

                        • h 28:10 - In this context, the Hebrew expressions tsaw-tsaw and qaw-qaw are likely meant to sound like baby talk, but they could mean "command upon command" and "rule upon rule"
                          11 For he will speak with {stammering} and another tongue to this people,

                          References for Isaiah 28:11

                            • i 28:11 - Literally "stammer of lip"
                              12 to whom he has said, "This [is] rest; give rest to the weary; and this [is] repose"; yet they were not willing to hear.
                              13 And to them the word of Yahweh will be blah-blah upon blah-blah blah-blah upon blah-blah gah-gah upon gah-gah gah-gah upon gah-gah, a little here, a little there, so that they may go and stumble backward and be broken and ensnared and captured.

                              The Cornerstone of Zion

                              14 Therefore hear the word of Yahweh, men of mockery, rulers of these people in Jerusalem:

                              References for Isaiah 28:14

                                  15 Because you have said, "We have {made} a covenant with death, and we have made an agreement with Sheol. [The] overwhelming flood, when it passes through, will not come to us, for we have made lies our refuge, and we have hidden ourselves in falsehood."
                                  16 Therefore the Lord Yahweh says this: "Look! I [am] laying a stone in Zion, a {tested} stone, a precious cornerstone, a founded foundation: 'The one who trusts will not {panic}.'
                                  17 And I will make justice [the] measuring line, and righteousness [the] plumb line; and hail will sweep away [the] refuge of lies, and waters will flood over [the] hiding place.

                                  References for Isaiah 28:17

                                      18 And your covenant with death will be annulled, and your agreement with Sheol will not stand; you will become a trampling place for the overwhelming flood when it passes through.
                                      19 {As often as it passes through}, it will take you, for {morning by morning} it will pass through, in the day and in the night, and understanding [the] message will be only terror."

                                      References for Isaiah 28:19

                                        • k 28:19 - Literally "From enough his passing through"
                                        • l 28:19 - Literally "in the morning in the morning"
                                          20 For the bed is too short {to stretch out on}, and the covering is [too] narrow when wrapping oneself.

                                          References for Isaiah 28:20

                                            • m 28:20 - Literally "from stretching oneself"
                                              21 For Yahweh will rise up as [at] Mount Perazim; he will rave as [in the] valley at Gibeon to do his deed--his deed [is] strange-- and to work his work--his work [is] alien!
                                              22 And now you must not scoff, or your bonds will be strong, for I have heard from the Lord, Yahweh of hosts: complete destruction decreed upon all the land.

                                              A Parable of Yahweh’s Work

                                              23 Listen, and hear my voice! Listen attentively, and hear my word!

                                              References for Isaiah 28:23

                                                  24 Is it all day [that] the plowman plows, opens to sow seed, harrows his ground?
                                                  25 When he has leveled its {surface}, does he not scatter dill, and sow cumin seed, and {plant} wheat [in] planted rows, and barley [in] an appointed place, and spelt grain [as] its border?

                                                  References for Isaiah 28:25

                                                    • n 28:25 - Literally "face"
                                                    • o 28:25 - Literally "place"
                                                    • p 28:25 - Hebrew "row"
                                                      26 And his God instructs him about the prescription; he teaches him.

                                                      References for Isaiah 28:26

                                                        • q 28:26 - That is, "the proper way"
                                                          27 For dill is not threshed with [a] threshing sledge, nor is a wheel of a utility cart {rolled} over cumin, but dill is beaten out with [a] stick, and cumin with [a] rod.

                                                          References for Isaiah 28:27

                                                            • r 28:27 - Literally "turned"
                                                              28 Grain is crushed fine, but certainly one does not thresh it forever; and one drives the wheel of his cart, but his horses do not crush it.
                                                              29 This also comes forth from Yahweh of hosts. He is wonderful [in] advice; he makes great wisdom.