Offerings, The daily sacrifice. (1-8) The offering on the sabbath and new moons. (9-15) Offerings at the passover, and on the day of first-fruits. (16-31)
Verses 1-8 God saw fit now to repeat the law of sacrifices. This was a new generation of men; and they were concerned to keep their peace with God when at war with their enemies. The daily sacrifice is called a continual burnt-offering; when we are bid to pray always, at least every morning and evening we should offer up solemn prayers and praises to God. Nothing is added here but that the wine poured out in the drink-offering is to be strong wine, to teach us to serve God with the best we have. It was a figure of the blood of Christ, the memorial of which is still left to the church in wine; and of the blood of the martyrs, which was poured out as a drink-offering on the sacrifice and service of our faith, ( Philippians 2:17 ) .
Verses 9-15 Every sabbath day, beside the two lambs offered for the daily burnt-offering, there must be two more offered. This teaches us to double our devotions on sabbath days, for so the duty of the day requires. The sabbath rest is to be observed, in order more closely to apply ourselves to the sabbath work, which ought to fill up the sabbath time. The offerings in the new moons showed thankfulness for the renewing of earthly blessings: when we rejoice in the gifts of providence, we must make the sacrifice of Christ, that great gift of special grace, the fountain and spring-head of our joy. And the worship performed in the new moons is made typical of gospel solemnities, Isa. 66:23 . As the moon borrows light from the sun, and is renewed by its influences; so the church borrows her light from Jesus Christ, who is the Sun of righteousness, renewing the state of the church, especially under the gospel.
Verses 16-31 By the sacrifices enjoined in this chapter, we are reminded of the continued power of the sacrifice of Christ, and of our continual need to depend thereon. No hurrying employments, or perilous situations, or prosperous circumstances, should cause slackness in our religious exercises; but should rather stir us up to greater diligence in seeking help from, or giving thanks to the Lord. And all is to be accompanied with repentance, faith is the Lord Jesus, and love to him, and to produce true holiness in our conduct towards all men; otherwise God will abhor our most solemn services and abundant devotions. And Christ is able to supply the wants of every day, every week, every month, every year, every ordinance, every case.
Numbers 28:1-31 . OFFERINGS TO BE OBSERVED.
2. Command the children of Israel, and say unto them--The repetition of several laws formerly enacted, which is made in this chapter, was seasonable and necessary, not only on account of their importance and the frequent neglect of them, but because a new generation had sprung up since their first institution and because the Israelites were about to be settled in the land where those ordinances were to be observed.
My offering, and my bread--used generally for the appointed offerings, and the import of the prescription is to enforce regularity and care in their observance.
9, 10. This is the burnt offering of every sabbath--There is no previous mention of a Sabbath burnt offering, which was additional to the daily sacrifices.
11-15. And in the beginnings of your months ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the Lord--These were held as sacred festivals; and though not possessing the character of solemn feasts, they were distinguished by the blowing of trumpets over the sacrifices ( Numbers 10:10 ), by the suspension of all labor except the domestic occupations of women ( Amos 8:5 ), by the celebration of public worship ( 2 Kings 4:23 ), and by social or family feasts ( 1 Samuel 20:5 ). These observations are not prescribed in the law though they obtained in the practice of a later time. The beginning of the month was known, not by astronomical calculations, but, according to Jewish writers, by the testimony of messengers appointed to watch the first visible appearance of the new moon; and then the fact was announced through the whole country by signal-fires kindled on the mountain tops. The new-moon festivals having been common among the heathen, it is probable that an important design of their institution in Israel was to give the minds of that people a better direction; and assuming this to have been one of the objects contemplated, it will account for one of the kids being offered unto the Lord ( Numbers 28:15 ), not unto the moon, as the Egyptians and Syrians did. The Sabbath and the new moon are frequently mentioned together.
16-25. in the fourteenth day of the first month is the passover--The law for that great annual festival is given ( Leviticus 23:5 ), but some details are here introduced, as certain specified offerings are prescribed to be made on each of the seven days of unleavened bread [ Numbers 28:18-25 ].
26, 27. in the day of the first-fruits . . . offer the burnt offering--A new sacrifice is here ordered for the celebration of this festival, in addition to the other offering, which was to accompany the first-fruits ( Leviticus 23:18 ).