The design of the epistle appears to be, that Timothy having been left at Ephesus, St. Paul wrote to instruct him in the choice of proper officers in the church, as well as in the exercise of a regular ministry. Also, to caution against the influence of false teachers, who by subtle distinctions and endless disputes, corrupted the purity and simplicity of the gospel. He presses upon him constant regard to the greatest diligence, faithfulness, and zeal. These subjects occupy the first four chapters; the fifth chapter instructs respecting particular classes; in the latter part, controversies and disputes are condemned, the love of money blamed, and the rich exhorted to good works.
The apostle salutes Timothy. (1-4) The design of the law as given by Moses. (5-11) Of his own conversion and call to the apostleship. (12-17) The obligation to maintain faith and a good conscience. (18-20)
Verses 1-4 Jesus Christ is a Christian's hope; all our hopes of eternal life are built upon him; and Christ is in us the hope of glory. The apostle seems to have been the means of Timothy's conversion; who served with him in his ministry, as a dutiful son with a loving father. That which raises questions, is not for edifying; that which gives occasion for doubtful disputes, pulls down the church rather than builds it up. Godliness of heart and life can only be kept up and increased, by the exercise of faith in the truths and promises of God, through Jesus Christ.
Verses 5-11 Whatever tends to weaken love to God, or love to the brethren, tends to defeat the end of the commandment. The design of the gospel is answered, when sinners, through repentance towards God and faith in Jesus Christ, are brought to exercise Christian love. And as believers were righteous persons in God's appointed way, the law was not against them. But unless we are made righteous by faith in Christ, really repenting and forsaking sin, we are yet under the curse of the law, even according to the gospel of the blessed God, and are unfit to share the holy happiness of heaven.
Verses 12-17 The apostle knew that he would justly have perished, if the Lord had been extreme to mark what was amiss; and also if his grace and mercy had not been abundant to him when dead in sin, working faith and love to Christ in his heart. This is a faithful saying; these are true and faithful words, which may be depended on, That the Son of God came into the world, willingly and purposely to save sinners. No man, with Paul's example before him, can question the love and power of Christ to save him, if he really desires to trust in him as the Son of God, who once died on the cross, and now reigns upon the throne of glory, to save all that come to God through him. Let us then admire and praise the grace of God our Saviour; and ascribe to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, three Persons in the unity of the Godhead, the glory of all done in, by, and for us.
Verses 18-20 The ministry is a warfare against sin and Satan; carried on under the Lord Jesus, who is the Captain of our salvation. The good hopes others have had of us, should stir us up to duty. And let us be upright in our conduct in all things. The design of the highest censures in the primitive church, was, to prevent further sin, and to reclaim the sinner. May all who are tempted to put away a good conscience, and to abuse the gospel, remember that this is the way to make shipwreck of faith also.
1 Timothy 1:1-20 . ADDRESS: PAUL'S DESIGN IN HAVING LEFT TIMOTHY AT EPHESUS, NAMELY, TO CHECK FALSE TEACHERS; TRUE USE OF THE LAW; HARMONIZING WITH THE GOSPEL; GOD'S GRACE IN CALLING PAUL, ONCE A BLASPHEMER, TO EXPERIENCE AND TO PREACH IT; CHARGES TO TIMOTHY.
1. by the commandment of God--the authoritative injunction, as well as the commission, of God. In the earlier Epistles the phrase is, "by the will of God." Here it is expressed in a manner implying that a necessity was laid on him to act as an apostle, not that it was merely at his option. The same expression occurs in the doxology, probably written long after the Epistle itself [ALFORD] ( Romans 16:26 ).
God our Saviour--The Father ( 1 Timothy 2:3 , 4:10 , Luke 1:47 , 2 Timothy 1:9 , Titus 1:3 , 2:10 , 3:4 , Jude 1:25 ). It was a Jewish expression in devotion, drawn from the Old Testament (compare Psalms 106:21 ).
our hope--( Colossians 1:27 , Titus 1:2 , 2:13 ).
2. my own son--literally, "a genuine son" (compare Acts 16:1 1 Corinthians 4:14-17 ).
mercy--added here, in addressing Timothy, to the ordinary salutation, "Grace unto you ( Romans 1:7 , 1 Corinthians 1:3 , &c.), and peace." In Galatians 6:16 , "peace and mercy" occur. There are many similarities of style between the Epistle to the Galatians and the Pastoral Epistles as a leading object in writing, the correction of false teachers, especially as to the right and wrong use of the law ( 1 Timothy 1:9 ). If the earlier date be assigned to First Timothy, it will fall not long after, or before (according as the Epistle to the Galatians was written at Ephesus or at Corinth) the writing of the Epistle to the Galatians, which also would account for some similarity of style. "Mercy" is grace of a more tender kind, exercised towards the miserable, the experience of which in one's own case especially fits for the Gospel MINISTRY. Compare as to Paul himself ( 1 Timothy 1:14 1 Timothy 1:16 , 1 Corinthians 7:25 , 2 Corinthians 4:1 , Hebrews 2:17 ) [BENGEL]. He did not use "mercy" as to the churches, because "mercy" in all its fulness already existed towards them; but in the case of an individual minister, fresh measures of it were continually needed. "Grace" has reference to the sins of men; "mercy" to their misery. God extends His grace to men as they are guilty; His "mercy" to them as they are miserable [TRENCH].
Jesus Christ--The oldest manuscripts read the order, "Christ Jesus." In the Pastoral Epistles "Christ" is often put before "Jesus," to give prominence to the fact that the Messianic promises of the Old Testament, well known to Timothy ( 2 Timothy 3:15 ), were fulfilled in Jesus.
3. Timothy's superintendence of the Church at Ephesus was as locum tenens for the apostle, and so was temporary. Thus, the office of superintending overseer, needed for a time at Ephesus or Crete, in the absence of the presiding apostle, subsequently became a permanent institution on the removal, by death, of the apostles who heretofore superintended the churches. The first title of these overseers seems to have been "angels" ( Revelation 1:20 ).
As I besought thee to abide still--He meant to have added, "so I still beseech thee," but does not complete the sentence until he does so virtually, not formally, at 1 Timothy 1:18 .
at Ephesus--Paul, in Acts 20:25 , declared to the Ephesian elders, "I know that ye all shall see my face no more." If, then, as the balance of arguments seems to favor imprisonment, the apparent discrepancy between his prophecy and the event may be reconciled by considering that the terms of the former were not that he should never visit Ephesus again (which this verse implies he did), but that they all should "see his face no more." I cannot think with BIRKS, that this verse is compatible with his theory, that Paul did not actually visit Ephesus, though in its immediate neighborhood (compare 1 Timothy 3:14 , 4:13 ). The corresponding conjunction to "as" is not given, the sentence not being completed till it is virtually so at 1 Timothy 1:18 .
I besought--a mild word, instead of authoritative command, to Timothy, as a fellow helper.
some--The indefinite pronoun is slightly contemptuous as to them ( Galatians 2:12 , Jude 1:4 ), [ELLICOTT].
teach no other doctrine--than what I have taught ( Galatians 1:6-9 ). His prophetic bodings some years before ( Acts 20:29 Acts 20:30 ) were now being realized (compare 1 Timothy 6:3 ).
4. fables--legends about the origin and propagation of angels, such as the false teachers taught at Colosse ( Colossians 2:18-23 ). "Jewish fables" ( Titus 1:14 ). "Profane, and old wives' fables" ( 1 Timothy 4:7 , 2 Timothy 4:4 ).
genealogies--not merely such civil genealogies as were common among the Jews, whereby they traced their descent from the patriarchs, to which Paul would not object, and which he would not as here class with "fables," but Gnostic genealogies of spirits and aeons, as they called them, "Lists of Gnostic emanations" [ALFORD]. So TERTULLIAN [Against Valentinian, c. 3], and IRENÆUS [Preface]. The Judaizers here alluded to, while maintaining the perpetual obligation of the Mosaic law, joined with it a theosophic ascetic tendency, pretending to see in it mysteries deeper than others could see. The seeds, not the full-grown Gnosticism of the post-apostolic age, then existed. This formed the transition stage between Judaism and Gnosticism. "Endless" refers to the tedious unprofitableness of their lengthy genealogies (compare Titus 3:9 ). Paul opposes to their "aeons," the "King of the aeons (so the Greek, 1 Timothy 1:17 ), whom be glory throughout the aeons of aeons." The word "aeons" was probably not used in the technical sense of the latter Gnostics as yet; but "the only wise God" ( 1 Timothy 1:17 ), by anticipation, confutes the subsequently adopted notions in the Gnostics' own phraseology.
questions--of mere speculation ( Acts 25:20 ), not practical; generating merely curious discussions. "Questions and strifes of words" ( 1 Timothy 6:4 ): "to no profit" ( 2 Timothy 2:14 ); "gendering strifes" ( 2 Timothy 2:23 ). "Vain jangling" ( 1 Timothy 1:6 1 Timothy 1:7 ) of would-be "teachers of the law."
godly edifying--The oldest manuscripts read, "the dispensation of God," the Gospel dispensation of God towards man ( 1 Corinthians 9:17 ), "which is (has its element) in faith." CONYBEARE translates, "The exercising of the stewardship of God" ( 1 Corinthians 9:17 ). He infers that the false teachers in Ephesus were presbyters, which accords with the prophecy, Acts 20:30 . However, the oldest Latin versions, and IRENÆUS and HILARY, support English Version reading. Compare 1 Timothy 1:5 , "faith unfeigned."
5. But--in contrast to the doctrine of the false teachers.
the end--the aim.
the commandment--Greek, "of the charge" which you ought to urge on your flock. Referring to the same Greek word as in 1 Timothy 1:3 1 Timothy 1:18 ; here, however, in a larger sense, as including the Gospel "dispensation of God" committed to Timothy wherewith he should "charge" his flock.
charity--LOVE; the sum and end of the law and of the Gospel alike, and that wherein the Gospel is the fulfilment of the spirit of the law in its every essential jot and tittle ( Romans 13:10 ). The foundation is faith ( 1 Timothy 1:4 ), the "end" is love ( 1 Timothy 1:14 , Titus 3:15 ).
out of--springing as from a fountain.
pure heart--a heart purified by faith ( Acts 15:9 , 2 Timothy 2:22 , Titus 1:15 ).
good conscience--a conscience cleared from guilt by the effect of sound faith in Christ ( 1 Timothy 1:19 , 1 Timothy 3:9 , 2 Timothy 1:3 , 1 Peter 3:21 ). Contrast 1 Timothy 4:2 , Titus 1:15 ; compare Acts 23:1 . John uses "heart," where Paul would use "conscience." In Paul the understanding is the seat of conscience; the heart is the seat of love [BENGEL]. A good conscience is joined with sound faith; a bad conscience with unsoundness in the faith (compare Hebrews 9:14 ).
faith unfeigned--not a hypocritical, dead, and unfruitful faith, but faith working by love ( Galatians 5:6 ). The false teachers drew men off from such a loving, working, real faith, to profitless, speculative "questions" ( 1 Timothy 1:4 ) and jangling ( 1 Timothy 1:6 ).
6. From which--namely, from a pure heart, good conscience, and faith unfeigned, the well-spring of love.
having swerved--literally, "having missed the mark (the 'end') to be aimed at." It is translated, "erred," 1 Timothy 6:21 , 2 Timothy 2:18 . Instead of aiming at and attaining the graces above named, they "have turned aside ( 1 Timothy 5:15 , 2 Timothy 4:4 , Hebrews 12:13 ) unto vain jangling"; literally, "vain talk," about the law and genealogies of angels ( 1 Timothy 1:7 , Titus 3:9 , 1:10 ); 1 Timothy 6:20 , "vain babblings and oppositions." It is the greatest vanity when divine things are not truthfully discussed ( Romans 1:21 ) [BENGEL].
7. Sample of their "vain talk" ( 1 Timothy 1:6 ).
Desiring--They are would-be teachers, not really so.
the law--the Jewish law ( Titus 1:14 , 3:9 ). The Judaizers here meant seem to be distinct from those impugned in the Epistles to the Galatians and Romans, who made the works of the law necessary to justification in opposition to Gospel grace. The Judaizers here meant corrupted the law with "fables," which they pretended to found on it, subversive of morals as well as of truth. Their error was not in maintaining the obligation of the law, but in abusing it by fabulous and immoral interpretations of, and additions to, it.
neither what they say, nor whereof--neither understanding their own assertions, nor the object itself about which they make them. They understand as little about the one as the other [ALFORD].
8. But--"Now we know" ( Romans 3:19 , 7:14 ).
law is good--in full agreement with God's holiness and goodness.
if a man--primarily, a teacher; then, every Christian.
use it lawfully--in its lawful place in the Gospel economy, namely, not as a means of a "'righteous man" attaining higher perfection than could be attained by the Gospel alone ( 1 Timothy 4:8 , Titus 1:14 ), which was the perverted use to which the false teachers put it, but as a means of awakening the sense of sin in the ungodly ( 1 Timothy 1:9 1 Timothy 1:10 ; compare Romans 7:7-12 Galatians 3:21 ).
9. law is not made for a righteous man--not for one standing by faith in the righteousness of Christ put on him for justification,and imparted inwardly by the Spirit for sanctification. "One not forensically amenable to the law" [ALFORD]. For sanctification, the law gives no inward power to fulfil it; but ALFORD goes too far in speaking of the righteous man as "not morally needing the law." Doubtless, in proportion as he is inwardly led by the Spirit, the justified man needs not the law, which is only an outward rule ( Romans 6:14 , Galatians 5:18 Galatians 5:23 ). But as the justified man often does not give himself up wholly to the inward leading of the Spirit, he morally needs the outward law to show him his sin and God's requirements. The reason why the ten commandments have no power to condemn the Christian, is not that they have no authority over him, but because Christ has fulfilled them as our surety ( Romans 10:4 ).
disobedient--Greek, "not subject"; insubordinate; it is translated "unruly," Titus 1:6 Titus 1:10 ; "lawless and disobedient" refer to opposers of the law, for whom it is "enacted" (so the Greek, for "is made").
ungodly and . . . sinners--Greek, he who does not reverence God, and he who openly sins against Him; the opposers of God, from the law comes.
unholy and profane--those inwardly impure, and those deserving exclusion from the outward participation in services of the sanctuary; sinners against the third and fourth commandments.
murderers--or, as the Greek may mean, "smiters" of fathers and . . . mothers; sinners against the fifth commandment.
manslayers--sinners against the sixth commandment.
10. whoremongers, &c.--sinners against the seventh commandment.
men-stealers--that is, slave dealers. The most heinous offense against the eighth commandment. No stealing of a man's goods can equal in atrocity the stealing of a man's liberty. Slavery is not directly assailed in the New Testament; to have done so would have been to revolutionize violently the existing order of things. But Christianity teaches principles sure to undermine, and at last overthrow it, wherever Christianity has had its natural development ( Matthew 7:12 ).
liars . . . perjured--offenders against the ninth commandment.
if there be any other thing--answering to the tenth commandment in its widest aspect. He does not particularly specify it because his object is to bring out the grosser forms of transgression; whereas the tenth is deeply spiritual, so much so indeed, that it was by it that the sense of sin, in its subtlest form of "lust," Paul tells us ( Romans 7:7 ), was brought home to his own conscience. Thus, Paul argues, these would-be teachers of the law, while boasting of a higher perfection through it, really bring themselves down from the Gospel elevation to the level of the grossly "lawless," for whom, not for Gospel believers, the law was designed. And in actual practice the greatest sticklers for the law as the means of moral perfection, as in this case, are those ultimately liable to fall utterly from the morality of the law. Gospel grace is the only true means of sanctification as well as of justification.
sound--healthy, spiritually wholesome ( 1 Timothy 6:3 , 2 Timothy 1:13 , Titus 1:13 , 2:2 ), as opposed to sickly, morbid (as the Greek of "doting" means, 1 Timothy 6:4 ), and "canker" ( 2 Timothy 2:17 ). "The doctrine," or "teaching, which is according to godliness" ( 1 Timothy 6:3 ).
11. According to the glorious gospel--The Christian's freedom from the law as a sanctifier, as well as a justifier, implied in the previous, 1 Timothy 1:9 1 Timothy 1:10 , is what this 1 Timothy 1:11 is connected with. This exemption of the righteous from the law, and assignment of it to the lawless as its true object, is "according to the Gospel of the glory (so the Greek, compare Note, glory ( Ephesians 1:17 , 3:16 ) in accounting "righteous" the believer, through the righteousness of Christ, without "the law" ( 1 Timothy 1:9 ); and in imparting that righteousness whereby he loathes all those sins against which ( 1 Timothy 1:9 1 Timothy 1:10 ) the law is directed. The term, "blessed," indicates at once immortality and supreme happiness. The supremely blessed One is He from whom all blessedness flows. This term, as applied to GOD, occurs only here and in 1 Timothy 6:15 : appropriate in speaking here of the Gospel blessedness, in contrast to the curse on those under the law ( 1 Timothy 1:9 , Galatians 3:10 ).
committed to my trust--Translate as in the Greek order, which brings into prominent emphasis Paul, "committed in trust to me"; in contrast to the kind of law-teaching which they (who had no Gospel commission), the false teachers, assumed to themselves ( 1 Timothy 1:8 , Titus 1:3 ).
12. The honor done him in having the Gospel ministry committed to him suggests the digression to what he once was, no better ( 1 Timothy 1:13 ) than those lawless ones described above ( 1 Timothy 1:9 1 Timothy 1:10 ), when the grace of our Lord ( 1 Timothy 1:14 ) visited him.
And--omitted in most (not all) of the oldest manuscripts.
I thank--Greek, "I have (that is, feel) gratitude."
enabled me--the same Greek verb as in Acts 9:22 , "Saul increased the more in strength." An undesigned coincidence between Paul and Luke, his companion. Enabled me, namely, for the ministry. "It is not in my own strength that I bring this doctrine to men, but as strengthened and nerved by Him who saved me" [THEODORET]. Man is by nature "without strength" ( Romans 5:6 ). True conversion and calling confer power [BENGEL].
for that--the main ground of his "thanking Christ."
he counted me faithful--He foreordered and foresaw that I would be faithful to the trust committed to me. Paul's thanking God for this shows that the merit of his faithfulness was due solely to God's grace, not to his own natural strength ( 1 Corinthians 7:25 ). Faithfulness is the quality required in a steward ( 1 Corinthians 4:2 ).
putting me into--rather as in 1 Thessalonians 5:9 , "appointing me (in His sovereign purposes of grace) unto the ministry" ( Acts 20:24 ).
13. Who was before--Greek, "Formerly being a blasphemer." "Notwithstanding that I was before a blasphemer," &c. ( Acts 26:9 Acts 26:11 ).
persecutor--( Galatians 1:13 ).
injurious--Greek, "insulter"; one who acts injuriously from arrogant contempt of others. Translate, Romans 1:30 , "despiteful." One who added insult to injury. BENGEL translates, "a despiser." I prefer the idea, contumelious to others [WAHL]. Still I agree with BENGEL that "blasphemer" is against God, "persecutor," against holy men, and "insolently injurious" includes, with the idea of injuring others, that of insolent "uppishness" [DONALDSON] in relation to one's self. This threefold relation to God, to one's neighbor, and to one's self, occurs often in this Epistle ( 1 Timothy 1:5 1 Timothy 1:9 1 Timothy 1:14 , Titus 2:12 ).
I obtained mercy--God's mercy, and Paul's want of it, stand in sharp contrast [ELLICOTT]; Greek, "I was made the object of mercy." The sense of mercy was perpetual in the mind of the apostle (compare Note, on those out of the way ( Hebrews 5:2 Hebrews 5:3 ).
because I did it ignorantly--Ignorance does not in itself deserve pardon; but it is a less culpable cause of unbelief than pride and wilful hardening of one's self against the truth ( John 9:41 , Acts 26:9 ). Hence it is Christ's plea of intercession for His murderers ( Luke 23:34 ); and it is made by the apostles a mitigating circumstance in the Jews' sin, and one giving a hope of a door of repentance ( Acts 3:17 , Romans 10:2 ). The "because," &c. does not imply that ignorance was a sufficient reason for mercy being bestowed; but shows how it was possible that such a sinner could obtain mercy. The positive ground of mercy being shown to him, lies solely in the compassion of God ( Titus 3:5 ). The ground of the ignorance lies in the unbelief, which implies that this ignorance is not unaccompanied with guilt. But there is a great difference between his honest zeal for the law, and a wilful striving against the Spirit of God ( Matthew 12:24-32 Luke 11:52 ) [WIESINGER].
14. And--Greek, "But." Not only so (was mercy shown me), but
the grace--by which "I obtained mercy" ( 1 Timothy 1:13 ).
was exceeding abundant--Greek, "superabounded." Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound" ( Romans 5:20 ).
with faith--accompanied with faith, the opposite of "unbelief" ( 1 Timothy 1:13 ).
love--in contrast to "a blasphemer, persecutor, and injurious."
which is in Christ--as its element and home [ALFORD]: here as its source whence it flows to us.
15. faithful--worthy of credit, because "God" who says it "is faithful" to His word ( 1 Corinthians 1:9 , 1 Thessalonians 5:24 , 2 Thessalonians 3:3 , Revelation 21:5 , 22:6 ). This seems to have become an axiomatic saying among Christians the phrase, "faithful saying," is peculiar to the Pastoral Epistles ( 1 Timothy 2:11 , 4:9 , Titus 3:8 ). Translate as Greek, "Faithful is the saying."
all--all possible; full; to be received by all, and with all the faculties of the soul, mind, and heart. Paul, unlike the false teachers ( 1 Timothy 1:7 ), understands what he is saying, and whereof he affirms; and by his simplicity of style and subject, setting forth the grand fundamental truth of salvation through Christ, confutes the false teachers' abstruse and unpractical speculations ( 1 Corinthians 1:18-28 , Titus 2:1 ).
acceptation--reception (as of a boon) into the heart, as well as the understanding, with all gladness; this is faith acting on the Gospel offer, and welcoming and appropriating it ( Acts 2:41 ).
Jesus--as manifested [BENGEL].
came into the world--which was full of sin ( John 1:29 , Romans 5:12 , 1 John 2:2 ). This implies His pre-existence. John 1:9 , Greek, "the true Light that, coming into the world, lighteth every man."
to save sinners--even notable sinners like Saul of Tarsus. His instance was without a rival since the ascension, in point of the greatness of the sin and the greatness of the mercy: that the consenter to Stephen, the proto-martyr's death, should be the successor of the same!
I am--not merely, "I was chief" ( 1 Corinthians 15:9 , Ephesians 3:8 ; compare Luke 18:13 ). To each believer his own sins must always appear, as long as he lives, greater than those of others, which he never can know as he can know his own.
chief--the same Greek as in 1 Timothy 1:16 , "first," which alludes to this fifteenth verse, Translate in both verses, "foremost." Well might he infer where there was mercy for him, there is mercy for all who will come to Christ ( Matthew 18:11 , Luke 19:10 ).
16. Howbeit--Greek, "But"; contrasting his own conscious sinfulness with God's gracious visitation of him in mercy.
for this cause--for this very purpose.
that in me--in my case.
first--"foremost." As I was "foremost" (Greek for chief, 1 Timothy 1:15 ) in sin, so God has made me the "foremost" sample of mercy.
show--to His own glory (the middle Greek, voice), Ephesians 2:7 .
all long-suffering--Greek, "the whole (of His) long-suffering," namely, in bearing so long with me while I was a persecutor.
a pattern--a sample ( 1 Corinthians 10:6 1 Corinthians 10:11 ) to assure the greatest sinners of the certainty that they shall not be rejected in coming to Christ, since even Saul found mercy. So David made his own case of pardon, notwithstanding the greatness of his sin, a sample to encourage other sinners to seek pardon ( Psalms 32:5 Psalms 32:6 ). The Greek for "pattern" is sometimes used for a "sketch" or outline--the filling up to take place in each man's own case.
believe on him--Belief rests ON Him as the only foundation on which faith relies.
to life everlasting--the ultimate aim which faith always keeps in view ( Titus 1:2 ).
17. A suitable conclusion to the beautifully simple enunciation of the Gospel, of which his own history is a living sample or pattern. It is from the experimental sense of grace that the doxology flows [BENGEL].
the King, eternal--literally, "King of the (eternal) ages." The Septuagint translates Exodus 15:18 , "The Lord shall reign for ages and beyond them." Psalms 145:13 , Margin, "Thy kingdom is an everlasting kingdom," literally, "a kingdom of all ages." The "life everlasting" ( 1 Timothy 1:16 ) suggested here "the King eternal," or everlasting. It answers also to "for ever and ever" at the close, literally, "to the ages of the ages" (the countless succession of ages made up of ages).
immortal--The oldest manuscripts read, "incorruptible." The Vulgate, however, and one very old manuscript read as English Version ( Romans 1:23 ).
invisible--( 1 Timothy 6:16 , Exodus 33:20 , John 1:18 , Colossians 1:15 , Hebrews 11:27 ).
the only wise God--The oldest manuscripts omit "wise," which probably crept in from Romans 16:27 , where it is more appropriate to the context than here (compare Jude 1:25 ). "The only Potentate" ( 1 Timothy 6:15 , Psalms 86:10 , John 5:44 ).
for ever, &c.--See note, above. The thought of eternity (terrible as it is to unbelievers) is delightful to those assured of grace ( 1 Timothy 1:16 ) [BENGEL].
18. He resumes the subject begun at 1 Timothy 1:3 . The conclusion (apodosis) to the foregoing, "as I besought thee . . . charge" ( 1 Timothy 1:3 ), is here given, if not formally, at least substantially.
This charge--namely, "that thou in them (so the Greek) mightest war," that is, fulfil thy high calling, not only as a Christian, but as a minister officially, one function of which is, to "charge some that they teach no other doctrine" ( 1 Timothy 1:3 ).
I commit--as a sacred deposit ( 1 Timothy 6:20 , 2 Timothy 2:2 ) to be laid before thy hearers.
according to--in pursuance of; in consonance with.
the prophecies which went before on thee--the intimations given by prophets respecting thee at thy ordination, 1 Timothy 4:14 (as, probably, by Silas, a companion of Paul, and "a prophet," Acts 15:32 ). Such prophetical intimation, as well as the good report given of Timothy by the brethren ( Acts 16:2 ), may have induced Paul to take him as his companion. Compare similar prophecies as to others: Acts 13:1-3 , in connection with laying on of hands; Acts 11:28 , Acts 21:10 Acts 21:11 ; compare 1 Corinthians 12:10 , 14:1 , Ephesians 4:11 . In Acts 20:28 , it is expressly said that "the Holy Ghost had made them (the Ephesian presbyters) overseers." CLEMENT OF ROME [Epistle to the Corinthians], states it was the custom of the apostles "to make trial by the Spirit," that is, by the "power of discerning," in order to determine who were to be overseers and deacons in the several churches planted. So CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA says as to the churches near Ephesus, that the overseers were marked out for ordination by a revelation of the Holy Ghost to St. John.
by them--Greek, "in them"; arrayed as it were in them; armed with them.
warfare--not the mere "fight" ( 1 Timothy 6:12 , 2 Timothy 4:7 ), but the whole campaign; the military service. Translate as Greek, not "a," but "the good warfare."
19. Holding--Keeping hold of "faith" and "good conscience" ( 1 Timothy 1:5 ); not "putting the latter away" as "some." Faith is like a very precious liquor; a good conscience is the clean, pure glass that contains it [BENGEL]. The loss of good conscience entails the shipwreck of faith. Consciousness of sin (unrepented of and forgiven) kills the germ of faith in man [WIESINGER].
which--Greek singular, namely, "good conscience," not "faith" also; however, the result of putting away good conscience is, one loses faith also.
put away--a wilful act. They thrust it from them as a troublesome monitor. It reluctantly withdraws, extruded by force, when its owner is tired of its importunity, and is resolved to retain his sin at the cost of losing it. One cannot be on friendly terms with it and with sin at one and the same time.
made shipwreck--"with respect to THE faith." Faith is the vessel in which they had professedly embarked, of which "good conscience" is the anchor. The ancient Church often used this image, comparing the course of faith to navigation. The Greek does not imply that one having once had faith makes shipwreck of it, but that they who put away good conscience "make shipwreck with respect to THE faith."
20. Hymenaeus--There is no difficulty in supposing him to be the Hymenæus of 2 Timothy 2:17 . Though "delivered over to Satan" (the lord of all outside the Church, Acts 26:18 , and the executor of wrath, when judicially allowed by God, on the disobedient, 1 Corinthians 5:5 , 2 Corinthians 12:7 ), he probably was restored to the Church subsequently, and again troubled it. Paul, as an apostle, though distant at Rome pronounced the sentence to be executed at Ephesus, involving, probably, the excommunication of the offenders ( Matthew 18:17 Matthew 18:18 ). The sentence operated not only spiritually, but also physically, sickness, or some such visitation of God, falling on the person excommunicated, in order to bring him to repentance and salvation. Alexander here is probably "the coppersmith" who did Paul "much evil" when the latter visited Ephesus. The "delivering him to Satan" was probably the consequence of his withstanding the apostle ( 2 Timothy 4:14 2 Timothy 4:15 ); as the same sentence on Hymenæus was the consequence of "saying that the resurrection is past already" ( 2 Timothy 2:18 ; his putting away good conscience, naturally producing shipwreck concerning FAITH, 1 Timothy 1:19 . If one's religion better not his morals, his moral deficiencies will corrupt his religion. The rain which falls pure from heaven will not continue pure if it be received in an unclean vessel [ARCHBISHOP WHATELY]). It is possible that he is the Alexander, then a Jew, put forward by the Jews, doubtless against Paul, at the riot in Ephesus ( Acts 19:33 ).
that they may--not "might"; implying that the effect still continues--the sentence is as yet unremoved.
learn--Greek, "be disciplined," namely, by chastisement and suffering.
blaspheme--the name of God and Christ, by doings and teachings unworthy of their Christian profession ( Romans 2:23 Romans 2:24 , 2:7 ). Though the apostles had the power of excommunication, accompanied with bodily inflictions, miraculously sent ( 2 Corinthians 10:8 ), it does not follow that fallible ministers now have any power, save that of excluding from church fellowship notorious bad livers.