a word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger ( Job 1:14 : 1 Samuel 11:3 ; Luke 7:24 ; 9:52 ), of prophets ( Isaiah 42:19 ; Haggai 1:13 ), of priests ( Malachi 2:7 ), and ministers of the New Testament ( Revelation 1:20 ).
It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence ( 2 Samuel 24:16 2 Samuel 24:17 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ), the wind ( Psalms 104:4 ).
But its distinctive application is to certain heavenly intelligences whom God employs in carrying on his government of the world. The name does not denote their nature but their office as messengers. The appearances to Abraham at Mamre ( Genesis 18:2 Genesis 18:22 . Comp 19:1 ), to Jacob at Peniel ( Genesis 32:24 Genesis 32:30 ), to Joshua at Gilgal ( Joshua 5:13 Joshua 5:15 ), of the Angel of the Lord, were doubtless manifestations of the Divine presence, "foreshadowings of the incarnation," revelations before the "fulness of the time" of the Son of God.
The existence and orders of angelic beings can only be discovered from the Scriptures. Although the Bible does not treat of this subject specially, yet there are numerous incidental details that furnish us with ample information. Their personal existence is plainly implied in such passages as Genesis 16:7 Genesis 16:10 Genesis 16:11 ; Judges 13:1-21 ; Matthew 28:2-5 ; Hebrews 1:4 , etc.
These superior beings are very numerous. "Thousand thousands," etc. ( Daniel 7:10 ; Matthew 26:53 ; Luke 2:13 ; Hebrews 12:22 Hebrews 12:23 ). They are also spoken of as of different ranks in dignity and power ( Zechariah 1:9 Zechariah 1:11 ; Daniel 10:13 ; 12:1 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:16 ; Jude 1:9 ; Ephesians 1:21 ; Colossians 1:16 ).
As to their nature, they are spirits ( Hebrews 1:14 ), like the soul of man, but not incorporeal. Such expressions as "like the angels" ( Luke 20:36 ), and the fact that whenever angels appeared to man it was always in a human form ( Genesis 18:2 ; Genesis 19:1 Genesis 19:10 ; Luke 24:4 ; Acts 1:10 ), and the titles that are applied to them ("sons of God," Job 1:6 ; 38:7 ; Daniel 3:25 ; Compare 28) and to men ( Luke 3:38 ), seem all to indicate some resemblance between them and the human race. Imperfection is ascribed to them as creatures ( Job 4:18 ; Matthew 24:36 ; 1 Peter 1:12 ). As finite creatures they may fall under temptation; and accordingly we read of "fallen angels." Of the cause and manner of their "fall" we are wholly ignorant. We know only that "they left their first estate" ( Matthew 25:41 ; Revelation 12:7 Revelation 12:9 ), and that they are "reserved unto judgement" ( 2 Peter 2:4 ). When the manna is called "angels' food," this is merely to denote its excellence ( Psalms 78:25 ). Angels never die ( Luke 20:36 ). They are possessed of superhuman intelligence and power ( Mark 13:32 ; 2 th 1:7 ; Psalms 103:20 ). They are called "holy" ( Luke 9:26 ), "elect" ( 1 Timothy 5:21 ). The redeemed in glory are "like unto the angels" ( Luke 20:36 ). They are not to be worshipped ( Colossians 2:18 ; Revelation 19:10 ).
Their functions are manifold. (a) In the widest sense they are agents of God's providence ( Exodus 12:23 ; Psalms 104:4 ; Hebrews 11:28 ; 1 Corinthians 10:10 ; 2 Sam 24:16 ; 1 Chronicles 21:16 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ; Acts 12:23 ). (b) They are specially God's agents in carrying on his great work of redemption. There is no notice of angelic appearances to man till after the call of Abraham. From that time onward there are frequent references to their ministry on earth ( Genesis 18 ; 19 ; Genesis 24:7 Genesis 24:40 ; 28:12 ; 32:1 ). They appear to rebuke idolatry ( Judges 2:1-4 ), to call Gideon ( Judges 6:11 Judges 6:12 ), and to consecrate Samson ( 13:3 ). In the days of the prophets, from Samuel downward, the angels appear only in their behalf ( 1 Kings 19:5 ; 2 Kings 6:17 ; Zech. 1-6; Daniel 4:13 Daniel 4:23 ; Daniel 10:10 Daniel 10:13 Daniel 10:20 Daniel 10:21 ).
The Incarnation introduces a new era in the ministrations of angels. They come with their Lord to earth to do him service while here. They predict his advent ( Matthew 1:20 ; Luke 1:26-38 ), minister to him after his temptation and agony ( Matthew 4:11 ; Luke 22:43 ), and declare his resurrection and ascension ( Matthew 28:2-8 ; John 20:12 John 20:13 ; Acts 1:10 Acts 1:11 ). They are now ministering spirits to the people of God ( Hebrews 1:14 ; Psalms 34:7 ; 91:11 ; Matthew 18:10 ; Acts 5:19 ; 8:26 ; 10:3 ; 12:7 ; 27:23 ). They rejoice over a penitent sinner ( Luke 15:10 ). They bear the souls of the redeemed to paradise ( Luke 16:22 ); and they will be the ministers of judgement hereafter on the great day ( Matthew 13:39 Matthew 13:41 Matthew 13:49 ; 16:27 ; 24:31 ). The passages ( Psalms 34:7 , Matthew 18:10 ) usually referred to in support of the idea that every individual has a particular guardian angel have no such meaning. They merely indicate that God employs the ministry of angels to deliver his people from affliction and danger, and that the angels do not think it below their dignity to minister even to children and to the least among Christ's disciples.
The "angel of his presence" ( Isaiah 63:9 . Compare Exodus 23:20 Exodus 23:21 ; 32:34 ; 33:2 ; Numbers 20:16 ) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people. Others have supposed the expression to refer to Gabriel ( Luke 1:19 ).
These dictionary topics are from
M.G. Easton M.A., D.D., Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition,
published by Thomas Nelson, 1897. Public Domain, copy freely.
[B] indicates this entry was also found in Baker's Evangelical Dictionary
Bibliography InformationEaston, Matthew George. "Entry for Angel". "Easton's Bible Dictionary". .