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John Greenwood

John Greenwood was a most distinguished puritan, and a great sufferer for nonconformity. The earliest account of him we meet with, is, that he was for some time chaplain to Lord Rich; but afterwards renounced his episcopal orders, and became a rigid Brownist. The congregation of Brownists about London, becoming pretty numerous, formed themselves into a church, Mr. Greenwood being chosen doctor or teacher, and Mr. Francis Johnson pastor, by the sufferage of the brotherhood.S This, according to our historians, appears to have been about the year 1592, or 1593; though it was probably a few years earlier.||

Upon Mr. Greenwood's espousing the opinions of the

* Fuller'! Church Hist. b. ix. p. 222, 223.
t Biog. Brilan. vol. iii. p. 2060. Edit. 1747.

t The first of these articles, Mr. Udal wrote in prison, and he is only supposed to be the author of the last.—Parte of a Register, p. 333. ^ For a circumstantial account of this, see Art. Francis Johnson. |j Strype's Annals, vol. iii. p. 124. iv. p. 175.

Brownish, he became intimately acquainted with Mr. Henry Barrow, a lawyer, and a zealous Brownist. Their history is so closely interwoven, that we shall consider them in connexion. They were very contracted in their principles, and fellow-sufferers in the same cause: yet, with the allowance of some mistaken notions, they were eminently good men, and very zealous christians. In November, 1586, having been some time confined in prison, they were brought before the high commission, for holding and propagating schismntical and seditious opinions, as they are called ; the most remarkable of which were the following: —" That the church of England is no true church.—That its worship is downright idolatry.—That the church admits unsanctified persons to her communion.—That the conformable ministers have no lawful calling.—That the government of the church is ungodly.—That no bishop, or preacher in the church, preacheth sincerely and truly.— That the people of every parish ought to choose their own bishop.—That every elder, though he be no doctor or pastor, is' a bishop.—That all the precise, (meaning those puritans who were not Brownists,) who refuse the ceremonies of the church, strain out a gnat, and swallow a camel, and are hypocrites.—That all who make or expound any printed or written catechisms, are idle shepherds.—That the children of ungodly parents ought not to be baptized.— And that to use set forms of prayer is blasphemous."* As we have this catalogue of schismatical and seditious opinions, from those who would not be at all disposed to favour them, we conclude that those positions, with their endeavouring to propagate them, were the worst crimes with which they could be charged. Some of their sentiments were, undoubtedly, very erroneous and uncharitable; but others were true and important, shewing their views of religious liberty.

When Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Barrow appeared before the high commission, they underwent very close examinations; and it was from these examinations their dangerous doctrines were collected. The examination of Mr. Barrow, now before me, is an article so little known, yet so curious, that I have given it, though at considerable length, in the following note.t It appears that Mr. Greenwood was

• Heylin's Hist, of Pres. p. 322, 323.—Collier's Eccl. Hist. vol. ii. p. 638.

+ November 19, 1586, Mr. Barrow appeared at Lambeth, before Archbishop Whitgifl, his archdeacon, and Dr. Cosins. On that day, being the Lord's day, he went to visit Mr. Greenwood, and the other brethren, imprisoned in the Clink ; where he had no sooner arrived than

imprisoned before Mr. Barrow; and that, in the month of November, 1586, he was confined in the Clink. How long he had been in a state of imprisonment, previous to that period, it is now difficult to ascertain. We are told,

Mr. Shepherd, the keeper, locked him op in the prison, saying he had orders from the archbishop so to do. When Mr. Barrow demanded a sight of his warrant, he said he shoold detain him; and if he were wronged, he might bring an action against him. Upon this, the keeper immediately went to the archbishop at Lambeth, and presently returned with two pursuivants. Mr. Barrow was then pot into a boat, and carried to Lambeth. On their way, Watson, one of the pursuivants, pulled out a paper from the high commission court at Lambeth, signifying to Mr. Barrow, that he had a long time sought him. " I told him," says Mr. Barrow, 11 his pains deserved thanks neither of God nor me. I refused bis letter, and would not read it, being under the arrest of the keeper of the Clink, who then sat by me." Upon their arrival at the archbishop's palace, after Watson had informed his master of what had passed in the boat, Mr. Barrow was brought into bis presence, when the following conference took place.

Archbishop. Is your name Barrow ?

Barrow. Yes.

A. It is told me, that you refuse to receive or obey our letter. Know you what you do ? It is from the high commissioners, and this man is a

pursuivant.

B. I refused to receive or obey that letter, at that time.

A. Why so?

B. Because I was under arrest, and imprisoned without warrant, and against law ; it was, therefore, too late to bring the letter.

A. Why, may not a counsellor commit to prison by his bare commandment?

B. That is not the question, what a counsellor may do; but whether this man (pointing to the keeper of the Clink) may do it, without warranty by the law of the land.

A. Know you the law of the land ?

B. Very little. Yet I was of Gray's-inn, some years. (Here Whitgift and the two Doctors derided his unskilfulness in the law, when Mr. Barrow said,) Let this pass. I look for little help, by law, against yon. I pray you, why have you imprisoned me, and sent for me in this manner!

A. That shall you know upon your oath. Will you swear?

B. I hold it lawful to swear, if it be done with due order and circum. stances.

A. Reach a book, and hold it him.

B. What shall I do with it ?

A. Lay your hand upon it, man.

B. For what purpose ?

A. To swear.

B. I use to swear by no books.

A. You shall not swear by the book, but by God only.

B. So I purpose, when I swear.

Cosins. Did you never take an oath at the assize, before the judges ?

B. No.

C. Would you there refuse to lay vour hand on a book, and swear ?

B. Yes.

C. Then your testimony would not be taken.

A. Why, man, the book is no part of the oath: It it but a ceremony.

B. A needless and wicked ceremony.

A. Why, know you what you say ? Know yoo what book it is I It to the Bible.

indeed, that pursuivants entered, at a late hour of the night, into an honest citizen's house, in Ludgate-bill; and having used their own pleasure, in searching all places, boxes, chests, &c. in the house, they apprehended, even

B. I will swear by no Bible.

C. Schismatic! are always clamorous. It is a perpetual note to know them bv.

A. Dr. Cosins sailh true. Such were the Donatists of old. And such art thou, and all other schismatics, such as thou art.

B. Say your pleasure. God forgive you. I am neither schismatic, nor. clamorous. 1 only answer your demand*. If you will, I will be silent.

A. Well, will you lay your band upon the Bible, and take an oath ?

B. I use to join no creatures to the name of God, in an oath.

A. Neither shall you. This is only a custom commanded by law.

B. The law ought not to command a wicked custom.

A. Why, is it not lawful to lay your hand on a book ?

B. Yes, but not In an oath.

A. Will you lay your band in my hand and swear ?

B. No.

A. Will you lay your hand on the table and swear.

B. No.

A. Will you bold up your bands towards heaven and swear ?

B. That is not amiss. But I will use my liberty.

A. Why, you hold it lawful to lay your hand on the table and swear.

B. Yes, if it be not commanded and made necessary.

A. Why, the book is the same. It is no part of the oath, but a thing indifferent.

B. If it be not of the oath, why do you so peremptorily enjoin itI And if it be indifferent, as you say it is, then I do well in not using it.

A. Nay, you do not well in refusing it. For therein you shew yourself disobedient to the higher powers, set over you by God.

B. You have even now said it is a thing indifferent. If it be, there is no power that can bring my liberty into bondage.

A. Where find you that ?

B. In I Corinthians.—Here a Testament was given him, but the archbishop and the others so interrupted him, that he could not find the place.

A. Your divinity is like your law.

B. The word of God is not the worse for my ill memory.

A. You speak not as you think, for you are proud.

B. I have small cause to be proud of my memory: you see the fault of it. But the apostle saith it. And you have no cause to condemn my memory, seeing you have all utterly forgotten this saying, " All things are lawful for me, but I will not be brought under the power of any."

A. I wonld like it well, if you cited your place in Greek or Latin.

B. Why, you understand English. Is not the word of God in English ?

A. Were you of Cambridge ?

B. Yes, I knew you there.

A. Have you read Calvin, Beza, and others?

B. I have read more than enough. Yet, I know not why I am imprisoned.

A. It is reported, that you come not to church, are disobedient to her majesty, and say there is no true church in England. What say you ? have you not at any time said this ?

B. These are reports. When you have produced your testimony, I will answer.

A. But I will better believe you upon your oatb, than others. How ■ay you i will you answer ?

without warrant, Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Francis Johnson, whom they carried, between one and two o'clock at night, to the Compter in Wood-street. Mr. Edward Boys, the owner of the house, remained a prisoner till the next day;

B. I will know what I swear to, before I swear.

A. Swear first; and then, if any thing unlawfully be demanded, yoo •hall not answer.

B. I have not learned so to swear. I will first know and consider of the matter, before I take an oath.—Here the archbishop commanded Dr. Cosins to record, 11 That Mr. Barrow refused to swear upon a book."

B. Yes, and set down that I will not answer thus at random; but I will first know and consider of the things I swear to, whether they require an oath.

A. Well, when were you at church i

B. That is nothing to you.

A. You area schismatic,a recusant, and a seditious peison.

B. Say what you will of me, I freely forgive you.

A. 1 care not for your forgiveness.

B. But if you offend me, you ought to seek it, whilst you are in the way with me.

A. When were you at church ?

B. I have answered that already: it belongetb not to you.

A. Are you indicted ?

B. Iam.

A. It belongeth to us, and I will not only meddle with you, but arraign vou before me as an heretic.

B. You shall do no more than God will. Err I may ( but an heretic I will never be.

A. Will you hereafter come to church ?

B. Future things are in the Lord's hands. If I do not, you have a law.

A. Have you spoken this of the church of England ?

B. When you have produced your witness, I will answer.

A. Upon your oath, I will believe you.

B. But I will not accuse myself.

A. You are lawless.

B. I had rather you produced your witness.

A. What occupation are you of i

B. I am a Christian.

A. So are we all.

B. I deny that.

A. Are you a minister?

B. No.

A. Are you a schoolmaster ?

B. No.

A. Then what trade are you t

B. In your letter, you know my trade in the subscription.

A. You are then a gentleman.

B. After the manner of our coontry, a gentleman.

A. Do you serve any man ?

B. No, I am God's freemao.

A. " ve you any lands ?

B. .nor fees.

A ir do you live?
B. -y God's goodness, and my friend's.
A Where dwelleth be, in Norfolk t
B. Yes.

A. Where dwell yon, io London t

when, by die archbishop and others, they were committed close prisoners, two of them to the Clink, and one to the Fleet. It does not appear, however, whether this was Mr. Greenwood's first or second imprisonment. In the year

B. No.

A. Can yon find sufficient security for yoor good behaviour ?

B. Yes, as sufficient ns yon can take. . A. Yon cannot have the queen.

B. Neither can you take her: the i! the judge of the law. Yet, for ay good behaviour, I suppose, I could get her word.

A. Doth she then know you ?

B. I know her.

A. Else, were it a pity of your life.

B. Not so.

A. Can you have any of those who came with you, to be bound for you ?

B. I think I can.

A. Do you know them I

B. I know one of them.

A. What is he ?

B. A gentleman of GmyVlnn.
A. What do you call him i

B Lacy,

A. Do yon know what bond you are to enter Into i. Yon are to bo bound to frequent our churches.

B. 1 understood you of my good behaviour.

A. That is contained in it, and you had forfeited yonr bond at first.

B. Now that I know your mind, I will enter into no such bond.

A. Will you enter your bond to appear at our court on Tuesday next; and so on Thursday, if you be not called ; and be bound not to depart, nntil you be dismissed by order of onr court i

B. No.

A. Then I will send you to prison.

B. You shall not touch one bair of my head, without the will of my heavenly Father.

A. Nay, I will do this to rectify you.

B. Consider what you do. You shall one day answer for it.

A. Yon will not swear, nor enter a bond for your appearance.

B. I will put in bond for my bail in the prison, and for my trn* imprisonment.

A. Nay, that will not serve the turn. Mr. Doctor, enter these things. I will send some to confer with you.

B. That were more requisite before my imprisonment.

Mr. Barrow was then delivered to the pursuivant, who Immediately carried him to the Gatehouse, where he remained for some time, not knowing the cause of his imprisonment. November 27th, he appeared a second time, before the high commission at Lambeth; upon which, the archbishop, with a black and an angry countenance, beholding him, inquired whether he would then swear, which introduced the following conference ■

B. I would not refuse to swear on a proper occasion.

A. Will you now swear J

B. I must first know to what.

A. So you shall afterwards.

B. 1 will not swear unless I know before.

A. Well, I will thus far satisfy your humour.

Here the archbishop pulled out a paper, containing many things confusedly put together, according to the malicious humour of his accuser: As, " That be denied God to have a true church in England,—That the 1592, Mr. Greenwood and his companion Mr. Barrow, had been confined at least four or fire years in close prison, with miserable usage.* Mr. Greenwood, as well as Mr. Barrow, underwent a

worship of the established church it idolatry. — That the ministry Is idolatrous and aotichristian.—That the archbishop, and all the bishops in the land, are antichrists.—That all the ministers in the land are thieves, murderers, hirelings, and hypocrites. — That Mr. Wigginton and Mr. Cartwright strain out a gnat and swallow a camel.—That he eondemneth all writers, as Calvin, Beta,&c. and saith, that all catechisms are idolatrous, and not to be used."

Bishop of London. How say you, Mr. Dean of Paul's, here is for yon. You have written a catechism.

A. This fellow deals indifferently, and makes ns all alike. Thus far I have satisfied you. Now you know what yon shall swear to. How say you? will you now swear?

Bp. My lord's grace doth shew this favour to many.

A. Fetch a book.

B. It is needless.

A. Why, will you not swear now ?

B. An oath is a matter of great Importance, and reqaireth great consideration. But X will answer you truly. Much of the matter la this bill is true. But the form is false.

A. Go to, sirrah, answer directly. Will yon swear? Reach him a book.

B. There is more cause to iwear mine accuser. I will not swear.

A. Where is his keeper ? You shall not prattle here. Away with him. Clap him up close, dote : let no man come to him. I will make him tell another tale, ere I have done with him.

Mr. Barrow was then immediately carried again to prison, where he remained inclose confinement till March 24th following; when he was brought before the two Lord Chief Justices, the Lord Chief Baron, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the Bishops of London and Winchester, and many others. Upon his appearance, he was commanded to lay his hand upon the Bible, which led to the following conversation:

B. For what end must I do this ?

A. To swear.

B. I have not learned to swear by any creatures.

A. This is the word of God, the Bible.

B. The book is not the eternal God himself, by whom only I most swear, and not by any books or bibles.

A. So you shall swear by God.

B. To what purpose then is the book urged ? I may swear by nothiog besides him, and by nothing with him.

Bishop of Winchester. How prove you that ?

B. It is so commanded in the book of the law. Dent. vi. 10., and so expounded by several of the prophets, by Jesus Christ himself, and hit apostles.

A. Well, will you swear that you will answer nothing but the troth, and the whole troth, to such interrogatories as we shall demand of you?

B. I will know the matter, before I either swear or answer.

A. Set down, that be will not swear.

L. C. Justice. You shall only swear to answer to the troth. If any onlawful thing be demanded of you, you need not answer.

B. My lord, every truth requlreth not an oath. Ad oath require!!

close examination. He appeared at London palace, before the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishops of London and Winchester, the two Lord Chief Justices, the Lord Chief Baron, the Master of the Rolls, and others. Upon his

great regard and reverence,, and being designed for confirmation, ongbt to be the end of all strife. My lord, if I should err, and deliver it upon my oath for troth, it would be a double sin. And if I should either not know, not remember, or not deliver the whole truth, I should, by such a rash oath, be forsworn. But, by God's grace, I will answer nothing but the truth.

A. A christian man's word ought to be as true as his oath. We will then proceed with you without your oath. What say you to this question ? Is it lawful to say the Pater-nosler publicly, as a prayer in the church, or privately, or not?

B. I know not what you mean by your Pater-noster, unlessV«u peradventuremean the form of prayer which our Saviour taught his disciples, commonly called the Lord's prayer.

A. So I mean.

The following articles of inquiry were then proposed to Mr. Barrow, to which he gave the answers annexed. .1. May the Lord's prayer be used in the church ?

In my opinion it is rather a summary than an enjoined form ; and not finding it used by the apostles, I think it may not be constantly used.

2. May liturgies or forms of prayer be used in the church ?

In the word of God, I find no authority given to any man to impose tbem upon the church ; and it is, therefore, high presumption to impose them.

3. Is the Common Prayer idolatrous, superstitious, and popish ? In my opinion, it is.

4. Are the sacraments of the church of England true sacraments ? As they arc publicly administered, they are not true sacraments.

5. Are the laws and government of the church of England unlawful and antichristian ?

As the decrees and canons of the church are so numerous, I cannot judge of all i but many of them, and the ecclesiastical courts and governors, are unlawful and antichristian.

6. Are such as have been baptized in the church of England rightly baptized ? or should they be baptized again ?

They are not baptized according to the institution of Christ i yet they may not need it again.

7. Is the church of England the true church of Christ ?

As it is now formed, it is not; yet there are many excellent christians in it.

8. Is the queen supreme governor of the church, and may she make laws for it ?

The queen is supreme governor of the whole land, and over the church, bodies and goods; but may not make any other laws for the church of Christ, than he hatb left in bis word.

9. Is it lawful for the prince to alter the judicial law of Moses?

I cannot see it lawful for any one to alter the least part of that law. Without doing injury to the moral law, and opposing the will of God.

10. May a private person reform the church, if the prince neglect it ? No private persons may reform the state, but they ought to abstain from

all uniawful things commanded by the prince.

11. Ought every particular church of Christ to have a presbytery ? The government of the church of Christ belongeth not to the ungodly,

but every particular church ought to have an eldership.

After giving these answers, he was sent back to prisoo, where he was closely confined, no one being allowed to see him, or speak to him. And appearance, certain interrogatories were put to him, as follows:

Q. What is your name?

G. John Greenwood.

though he earnestly requested a copy of hit answers, the favour could not

be obtained.

. June 18, 1587, Mr. Barrow was again brought up, and underwent

another examination, before the Archbishop, the Lord Chancellor, the Lord Treasurer, Lord Buckhurst, the Bishop of London, Justice Young, Dr. Some, and others. The Lord Treasurer introduced his examination as

follows:

Treasurer. Why are you in prison, Barrow ?

B. I am in prison, my lord, upon the statute made for recusants.

T. Why will you not come to church ?

B. My whole desire is to come to the church of God.

T. I see thou art a fantastical fellow. But why not come to our churches?

B. My lord, the causes are great and many : as,—1. Because all the wicked in the land are received unto the communion.—2. Yon hare a false and an aotichristian ministry set over your church.—3. Yon do not worship God aright, but in an idolatrons and a superstitions manner.—And, 4. Your church is not governed by the Testament of Christ, but by the Romish courts and canons.

T. Here is matter enough, indeed. I perceive thou takest delight to be an author of this new religion.

Chancellor: I never heard such stuff in all my life.

London. Is the worship of the church idolatrous ?

B. In the Book of Common Prayer, there is little else: as, the saints'days, eves, fasts, idol-feasts, &c.

Lond. Stay there. Is it not lawful to keep a memorial of the saints in the church ?

B. Not after this manner. It is idolatry.

Lond. How prove you that ?

B. By the first commandment.

Lond. Why, that is, " Thoa shall have no other Gods before me." What of that ?

B. The words are, " Thou shall have no other Gods before my face," We are, therefore, forbidden to give any part of God's worship to any creature.

Lond. Why, neither do we.

B. Yes, you celebrate a day, and sanctify an eve, and call them by the names of saints; and thus you make a feast,and devise a worship unto them.

T. Why, may we not call the day by their names ? Is not this in our liberty ?

B. No, my lord.

T. How do you prove that ?

B. In the beginning of the Bible, it is written, that God himself named all the days, the first, the second, &c.

T. Then we may not call them Sunday, Monday, dec.

B. We are otherwise taught to call them, in the word of God.

T. Why, thou thyself callest Sunday, the Lord'! day.

B. And so the Holy Ghost calieth it, in the first of Revelation.

Lond. We have nothing in our saints'-days, but what is taken forth of the scriptures.

B. In that, you say true; for you find no saints'-days in the scriptures.
Loud. We find their histories and deeds in the scripture.
B. But not their days and festivals.
Buckhurst. He is a proud spirit.

Lay your hand upon the book. You mutt take an oath.

G. I will swear by the name of God, if there be any need; but not by, or upon, any book.

T. He hai a hot brain. How do you like the collect!, and epistles and gospels, for the saints'-days, as they are in the Book of Common Prayer ?

B. I dislike all. We ought not so to use prayers and scriptures.

Lond. May we not make commemoration of the saints'lives in the church ?

B. Not after your manner, by giving peculiar days, eves, fasts, feasts, and worship, unto them.

T. What is there idolatrous in this ?

B. It is all idolatrous. We ought not so to use the scriptures.
Lond. What not in commemoration of the saints?
B. As I have said, not after your manner.
T. What evil is there in it?

B. It is all evil, my lord. For, by thus abusing the scripture, we make it an idol. Things in themselves good, thus become evil. As, in the massbook, whence this stun* is taken, Ihere are sundry good collects and places of scripture, which superstitious abuse renders abominable.

Buck. lie is out of his wits.

B. No, my lord, I speak the words of truth and soberness, as I could make appear, if I might be suffered.

T. Here we pray, that our lives may be such as theirs were, void of covetousness.

B. So we ought to do. Yet not to use the scriptures in this manner to days and times, nor to be so restrained or stinted in our prayers, as to be tied to this form of words, time, place, manner, kneeling, standing, die.

Buck. This fellow delighteth to hear himself talk.

A. He is a sower of errors ; and, therefore, I committed him.

B. You, indeed, committed me half a year close prisoner in the Gatehouse, and I never until now understood the cause, neither do I yet know what errors they are. Shew them, therefore, I pray you.

Buck. He has a presumptuous spirit.

B. My lord, all spirits must he tried and judged by the word of God. But if I err, my lord, it is meet 1 should be shewn wherein.

Chan. There must be stricter laws made for such fellows.

B. Would to God there were, my lord, our journey would then be the shorter.

T. You complained to us of injustice; wherein have yon received wrong ?

B. By being imprisoned, my lord, without due trial.

T. You said you were condemned upon the statute.

B. Unjustly, my lord. That statute was not made for us.

T. There must be stricter laws made for you.

B. O, my lord I speak more comfortably. We have sorrows enow.

T. Indeed, tbou lookest as if thou hadst a troubled conscience.

B. No, my lord, I praise God for it. But it is an awful thing, that the ■word of our prince should thus be drawn against her faithful subjects.

T. The queen's sword is not yet drawn against Mr. Barrow and hit fellow-prisoners.

B. We have been long confined in close prison.

T. Have you not had a conference ?

Lond. Several have been with tbem, whom they mocked.

B. We have mocked no man. Miserable physicians are you all. We desired a public conference, that all might know our opinions, and wherein we err.

A. You shall have no such conference, you have published too much already { and, therefore, I committed yoa close prisoners.

Q. We will examine you then without an oath. Are you a minister ? G. I was one, according to your orders. Q. Who degraded you ?

B. But contrary to the law.

T. On such occasions it may be done by law. Hare yon any learning } B. The Lord knoweth I am ignorant. I have no learning to boast of. But this I know, that you are void of all true learning and godliness. Buck. See the spirit of this man.

A. I have matter to call you before me as an heretic

B. That shall you never do. You know my former judgment in that nutter. Err I may; but heretic, by the grace of God, I will never be.

Buck. That is well said.

T. Do you not hold, that it is unlawful to enact a law for minister! to live by tithes, and that the people be required to pay them ?

B. My lord, such laws arc abrogated and unlawful.

T. Thou wouldst have the minister to live upon something. What should he live of?

B. Wholly of alms, as Christ hath ordained,and as he and his apostles lived.

T. How if the people will not give ?

B. Such are not the people of God.

T. But what shall the ministers do, in the mean time ?

B. Not stand as ministers to such, neither receive the goods of the profane.

T. Where canst thou shew me, from scripture, that ministers ought not to live by tithes? '

B. Heb. vii. 12., Gal. vi. 6. In the one place tithes are abrogated; in the other, another kind of provision is made for ministers. The words of the former text are these: " For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law;" and yon cannot deny, that tithes were a part of that law: as Numb, xviii.

T. Wouldst thou have the minister then to have all my goods?

B. No, my lord. But I would have you not withhold your goods from helping him: neither rich nor poor are exempted from this duty.

T. Ministers are not now called priests.

B. If they receive tithes, they are priests. They are called priests ia the law.

Lond. What is a presbyter, I pray thee ?
* B. An elder.
Lond. What in age only ?
B. No. Timothy was a young man.
Lond. Presbyter is Latin for priest.

B. It is no Latin \vord| but is derived from the Greek, and (igninetb

the sume as the Greek word, which is elder. Lond. What then dost thou make a priest?

B. One that ofiereth sacrifices; for so It is always used In the law. Chan. Do you not know those two men ? pointing at the bishop and archbishop.

B. Yes, my lord, I have cause to know them.
Chan. Is not this the Bishop of London ?
B. 1 know him for no bishop, my lord.
Chan. What is he then ?

B. His name is Aylmer,. my lord. The Lord pardon my fault, that I did not lay him open as a wolf, a bloody persecutor, and an apostate.

Chan. What is that man, pointing to the archbishop t

B. He is a monster; a miserable compound; I know not what to make of him. He is neither ecclesiastical nor civil, but that second beast spoken of in Revelation.

VOL. II. D

G. I degraded myself, through God's mercy, by repentance. (Meaning when he renounced his episcopal orders, and separated from the established church.)

Q. Is it lawful to use the Lord's prayer, publicly or privately, as a prayer ?

G. It is a doctrine by which to direct all our prayers; but, for certain reasons, no man can use it as a public or private prayer.

Q. Is it lawful, or not ? I will hear no prattling.

G. From any thing I can see in scripture, it is not lawful. There is no command to say the very words; and Christ and his apostles prayed in other words, according to their necessities.

Q. Is it lawful to use any stinted forms of prayer, in public or private ?

G. They are apocrypha, and may not be used in public assemblies. The word, and the graces of the spirit of God, are only to be used there.

Q. Answer directly. Is it lawful to use them publicly or privately ?

G. Paul saith, " The spirit also helpeth our infirmities; for we know not what we should pray for as we ought; but the spirit makcth intercession for us."

Q. What say you ? Answer directlj'.

G. It does not appear lawful to use stinted prayers, invented by men, either publicly or privately, from any thing I can sec in the scriptures.

Q. What say you then of the Book of Common Prayer ? Is it superstitious, popish, and idolatrous ?

G. I beseech you, that I may not be urged by your law. I have long been a close prisoner, and, therefore, desire you will shew me wherefore I am treated thus, and not entangle me by your law.

Q. Is it not your law, as well as ours ? It is the queen's law. You are a good subject.

G. I am a true and obedient subject. But I thought we were reasoning about your popish canons.

T. Where is the place ? Shew it.

When Mr. Barrow turned to Rev. xiii., with a view to shew the treasurer, the archbishop arose, and in anger gnashing his teeth, he said, " Will you suffer him, my lords}" Then by the wardens, Mr. B. was immediately plucked from off his knees, and carried away. As he departed, he desired of the treasurer, that, during bis confinement in prison, be might enjoy the liberty of the air, but received no answer. He was, therefore, carried to prison, and closely confined for several years, and met with the most cruel u-age.—Examinations of Barrow, Grccnaood, and Ptnry, p. 3—81.

Q. Is not the Common Prayer Book established by the queen's laws ?

L. C. Justice. Tell us what you think of the Book of Common Prayer: you shall have liberty to call back what you will.

G. If it were in a free conference, as we have often desired, I would do it .

Bishop of Winchester. Have you not used these words a year ago, " It is popish, superstitious, and idolatrous?"

G. Yes, I think I have. For it was taken out of the pope's portuis. Q. Why would you not answer thus before ? G. Because I see you go about to bring me within the compass of your law, by making me accuse myself. J. Anderson. What do you say of it now ? G. That there are many errors in it; and the form of it is disagreeable to the scriptures.

G. It must needs be contrary, if it be disagreeable. Winch. Do you hold it to be popish, superstitious, and idolatrous ?

G. I have told you what I think of it. I hold it is full of errors, and the form of it disagreeable to the scriptures.

Q. What say you of marriage ? Did you not marry one Bomnn and his wife in the Fleet ?

G. No. Neither is marriage any part of the minister's office.

Q. Who used prayer ? G. I think, that I used prayer, at that time. Q. Who joined their hands together ? G. I know no such thing. They publicly acknowledged their consent before the assembly.

Stanhope. I will make them do penance for it. G. There are others who have more need to shew open repentance than they.

Winch. They make such marriages under a hedge. It hath been an order long received, to marry by a minister.

G. There were many faithful witnesses of their mutual consent. And if it were not lawful, we have many ancient fathers, who, by your judgment, did amiss.

Q. What say you of the church of England ? Is it a true established church of God ?

G. The whole commonwealth is not a church.
Ander. But do you know any true established church in

the land ?

G. If I did, I would not accuse it unto jou.

Q. But what say you ? is not the whole land, as now ordered, a true established church ?

Q. No, not as the assemblies generally are. If it please you, I will shew you the reasons.

. Jus. No, you shall have enough to shew hereafter. It is not to be stood upon now.

Q. What do you say of the church of England, as it is governed by bishops ? Is it antichristian ?

G. According to the bishops, and laws it is now governed by, it is not according to the scriptures.

Winch. Thou hast the scriptures often in thy mouth. Is it antichristian ?

G. Yes, I hold it is contrary to Christ's word.

Q. What say you then of the sacraments? Are they true sacraments ?

G. No. They are not rightly administered, according to the institution of Christ, nor have they the promise of grace; because you keep not the covenant.

Q. Speak plainly. Are they true sacraments, or not ?

G. No. For if you have no true church, you can have no true sacraments.

Q. How say you, are we baptized ?

G. You have the outward sign, which is washing; but no true sacrament.

Q. How can that be ?

G. Very well.*

Q. Is it lawful baptism f

G. Yes.

Q. Need we then be baptized again i
G. No.

Q. Should we be baptized at all f G. Yes. For if we contemn it, we deny the possession of grace.

Q. Do you hold it lawful to baptize children i

G. I am no anabaptist, I thank God.

Q. How far do you differ from them ?

G. As far as truth is from error.

Q. You have a boy unbaptized. How old is he ?

G. A year and a half.

Q. What is his name ?

G. Abel.

Q. Who gave him that name ?

• Here Mr. Greenwood attempted to assign reasons for what he said, bat was not suffered to proceed. ' '

G. Myself, being father.

Q. Why hath he not been baptized ?

G. Because I have been in prison, and cannot tell where to go to a reformed church, where I might have him baptized according to God's ordinance.

Q. Will you go to church, to St. Bridges ?

G. I know 01 no such church.

Q. Will you go to St. Paul's ?

G. No.

Q. Do you not hold a parish to be the church ?

G. If all the people were faithful, having God's law and ordinances practised among them, I do.

Q. Do you then hold, that the parish doth make it no church.

G. No. But the profession which the people make.

Q. Do you hold that the church ought to be governed by a presbytery ?

G. Yes, every congregation of Christ ought to be governed by that presbytery which Christ hath appointed.

Q. What are those officers ?

G. A pastor, teacher, and elder.

Q. And must the church be governed by no other officers ?

G. No, by no others than Christ hath appointed. Q. May this people and presbytery reform such things as are amiss, without the prince ?

G. They ought to practise God's laws, and correct vice by the censure of the word.

G. They must, nevertheless, do that which God commanded.

Q. If the prince offend, may the presbytery excommunicate him ?

G. The whole church may excommunicate any member of that church, if the party continue obstinate in open transgression.

Q. May the prince be excommunicated ?

G. There is no exception of persons; and I doubt not that her majesty would be ruled by the word. For it is not the men, but the word of God, that bindeth and looscth.

Q. May the prince then make laws for the government of the church ? G. The scripture hath set down sufficient laws for the worship of God, and the government of the church; so that no nian may add unto it, nor diminish from it.

Q. What say you of the prince's supremacy ? Is her majesty supreme head of the church, in all causes, as well ecclesiastical, as civil ?

G. She is supreme magistrate over all persons, to punish the evil, and defend the good.

Q. Is she over all causes .*

G. No. Christ is the only head of his church; and his laws may no man alter.

Q. But the pope giveth this to princes, doth he not ?

G. No, he doth not. He setteth himself above princes, and exempteth his priesthood from the magistrate's sword.

Q. What say you of the oath of supremacy ? Do you approve of it?

G. If these ecclesiastical orders mean such as are agreeable to the scriptures, I do. For I deny all foreign power.

Q. It means the order and government, with all the laws in the church, as it is now established.

G. Then I will not answer to approve of it.*

From the above examination, the reader will clearly see, that Mr. Greenwood's judges designed to make him accuse himself. Though he positively refused to take the oath ex officio, they certainly intended to make him an offender by what they could force from his own mouth. Cruel inquisitors! What would they have thought, if they themselves had been treated thus, in the bloody days of Queen Mary ? Such shocking barbarities will be a stigma upon the ecclesiastical rulers of this protestant country, to the latest posterity.

At the close of the above examination, Mr. Greenwood was carried back to prison, where he remained a long time under close confinement. Here he had many companions in bondage, as appears from a paper now before me, entitled, " The names of sundry faithful Christians imprisoned by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of London, for the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ." In this paper it is observed, that Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Barrow had been imprisoned thirty weeks in the Clink, for reading a portion of scripture in a friend's house on the Lord's day, but were removed by an habeas corpus to the Fleet, where they lay upon an execution of two hundred and sixty pounds

* Examinations of Barrow, Greenwood, and Penry, p. 28—!5.

a-piece. Henry Thompson and George Collier were committed to the Clink by the Bishop of London, for hearing Mr. Greenwood read a portion of scripture as above observed ; and had remained prisoners nineteen months without being called to answer. Jerome Studley was sent to the Compter, by his lordship, for refusing to answer interrogatories, where he remained fifteen months. Christopher Roper was committed close prisoner by the Bishop of London. Edward Boys was nineteen months in Bridewell, and afterwards close prisoner in the Clink. John Chamber was committed to the same prison, for hearing Mr. Greenwood read as above, where he died. Roger Jackson was sent close prisoner to Newgate, where he died. George Bright, for commending a faithful christian under persecution, was committed to Newgate, where he died. Maynard, Roe, and Barrow, three aged widows, were cast into Newgate, by the Bishop of London, for hearing Mr. Greenwood read a portion of scripture, and two of them died of the infection of the prison. Quintin Sinyth was committed to Newgate, confined in a dungeon, loaded with irons, and his Bible taken from him. John Purdye was sent to Bridewell by the Archbishop of Canterbury, where he was confined in a place called Little Ease, and beaten with cudgels, for refusing to attend the service of the parish church. There are many others who underwent similar barbarous usage;» but these are given as a specimen, shewing the spirit of the times, and the cruel oppressions of the lordly prelates.

During these inhuman proceedings, the Bishop of London, and others of the high commission, appointed forty-three ministers to confer with the same number of Brownists confined in the different prisons in and about London; (the names of whom, as well as the prisoners, arc now before me;) and delivered unto them for their direction, " A Brief of the Positions held by the new Sectaries, being twelve in number." These twelve positions, as charged against them by their adversaries, are full of erroneous, heretical, and blasphemous opinions; but they contain little more than misrepresentation. Therefore, to these positions they published a reply, entitled " A brief Answer to certain slanderous and ungodly Calumniations spread abroad by the Bishops and their Adherents, against divers faithful and true Christians," 1590. In this piece, they absolutely denied the most odious charges brought against them, and openly

declared what they believed in all the twelve particulars; and it appears, my author adds, that they held very few or none of those false doctrines or positions with which they were charged/*

Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Barrow united with about sixty other prisoners, in laying their case at the feet of the lord treasurer. This they did by presenting a petition to this honourable person, called " The humble Petition of many

Foot Christians, imprisoned by the Bishops in sundry risons in and about London." In this petition, they earnestly beseech this great statesman, either to grant them speedy trial, or some christian conference; or, in the mean time, that they might be bailed according to law: or, that he would move their cause before the rest of her majesty's most honourable privy council. They then state their case in the following very moving language:—" May »t please " your lordship to understand, that we, her majesty's loyal, " dutiful, and true-hearted subjects, to the number of three" score persons and upwards, have, contrary to all law and " equity, been imprisoned, separated from our trades, wives, " children, and families; yea, shut up close prisoners from " all comfort: many of us the space of two years and a " half, upon the bishops' sole commandment, in great " penury, and noisome prisons; many ending their lives, " never called to trial; some haled forth to the sessions; " some put in irons and dungeons; some in hunger and " famine. All of them debarred from any lawful audience " before our honourable governors and magistrates, and u from all help and benefit of the laws: daily defamed and " falsely accused, by published pamphlets, private sug" gestions, open preaching, slanders, and accusations of u heresy, sedition, schism, and what not. And above all, u (which most toucheth our salvation,) they keep us from " all spiritual edification and comfort, by doctrine, prayer, " or mutual conference."t This petition, however, did not succeed according to their wishes.

During their long and severe imprisonment, various pamphlets were published against them, whereby their characters were foully aspersed, and their sentiments exceedingly misrepresented. In reply, they published several pamphlets, in defence of themselves and their opinions, and endeavoured to set forth the truth in its proper light. Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Barrow were supposed to be the authors

• MS. Chronology, vol. ii. p. 425. (8) (3.) + Strype'a Annals, vol. fv. p. 91—93.

of these publications, in which thej expressed themselves •with considerable freedom against the bishops, and the established church. Therefore, March 21, 1592, they, together with Mr. Saxio Bellot, gent., Daniel Studlej, girdler, and Robert Bowie, fishmonger, were indicted at the Old Bailey, upon the statute of 23 Eliz. " For writing and publishing sundry seditious books and pamphlets, tending to the slander of the queen and government;" when, in fact, they had written and published only against the church. Upon their trial, they behaved with great constancy and resolution, shewing no token of recognition, nor prayer for mercy. They protested their inviolable loyalty to the queen, and obedience to her government: that they. never wrote, nor so much as ever intended to write, any thing against her highness, but only against the bishops and the established church; which was, indeed, sufficiently manifest. The jury, however, savouring too much of the spirit of their judges, brought them all in guilty.' Bellot, with tears, desired a conference, and confessed with sorrow what he had done; and Studley and Bowie being looked upon as accessaries only, though they continued firm, declaring their unshaken loyalty to the queen, and refusing to ask for mercy, were reprieved, and sent back to prison. Studley, after four years' imprisonment, was banished from the country, and Bellot and Bowie, not long after, died in Newgate.t In the mean time, Mr. Greenwood and Mr. Barrow were reserved for public examples.f Accordingly, sentence of death was passed upon them March 23d, when several divines were appointed to persuade them to recant. But remaining steadfast, they were carried, on the last of March, in a cart to Tyburn, and for some time exposed

• 8trype's Whitgift, p. 414, 415. + MS. Remarks on Hist. p. 454.

J About this time, Mr. Barrow presented a petition to tbe AttorneyGeneral Egerton, in which, after humbly requesting the favour of an impartial conference, in behalf of himself and his brethren then con6ned in prison, he thus addressed him:—" I protest to jour worship, in the " sight of God, at whose judgment I look hourly to stand, that I hold "not anything out of singularity, or pride of spirit; but am certainly " persuaded by the grounds of God's word, the profession and practice " of the reformed churches, and learned men of other countries. I, for " my own part, avow unto your worship, that, through God's grace, " I will utterly forsake any error I shall be proved to hold, and will " humbly submit in all matters proved by the word of God.—By this " charitable act, your worship may pat an end to the present controversies, " reduce all wherein we err, and appease many christian souls.—Signed " your worship's humble suppliant, Hkxrt Barrow.!'

Strype'! Annals, vol. ir. p. 171.

under the gallows before the people, to see whether the terrors of death would not frighten them. They, nevertheless, continued firm even in the immediate prospect of death, and were brought back to Newgate. April 6, 1593, they were carried to Tyburn a second time, and there executed.* At the place of execution, they gave such testimonies of

queen, praying so earnestly for her long and prosperous reign, that when Dr. liainofds, who attended them, reported their behaviour to her majesty, she repented of having consented to their death.+ The doctor signified to her majesty, " that he was persuaded, if they had lived, they would have been two as worthy instruments for the church of God, as any that had been raised up in that age." The queen, afterwards riding by the place of their execution, called to mind their suffering death, and, desirous to obtain some further information concerning them, demanded of the Earl of Cumberland, who was present at their death, what kind of end they made. He answered, " A very godly end, and prayed for your majesty, state, &c." Also, Mr. Philips, a most worthy and famous preacher, having conferred with Mr. Barrow, and beheld his holy preparation for death, said, " Barrow, Barrow, my soul be with thinc."t And we learn from the famous Mr. Hugh Broughton, who lived in these times, " that though Barrow and Greenwood were condemned for disturbance of the state; this would have been pardoned, and their lives spared, if they would have promised to come to church.Thus they suffered for their nonconformity!

Their trial for offences against the state, when they bad written against the bishops and the church only, was undoubtedly the artful contrivance of Archbishop Whitgift; who, by so doing, cast the odium of their death from himself upon the civil magistrate. Indeed, this charge is fairly brought against him by one of the sufferers. Mr. Barrow, having suffered confinement in close prison several years, exposed to all the severities of cold, nakedness, and famine, at length presented a supplication to the queen, earnestly desiring to be delivered from their present miseries, though it were by death. The paper was, however, intercepted by the archbishop, who endeavoured to prevent

• Hejlin's Hist, of Presby. p. 324,325.

+ Neal's Hist, of Puritans, vol. i. p. 884. 4to. Edit.

t Peirce's Vindication, part i. p. 147.

I, Brougbton's Works, vol. ii. p. 731. Edit. 1692.

their unfeigned piety towards

a knowledge of their situation from coming to the ears of

the queen. Mr. Barrow, therefore, exposed his grace's behaviour, in the following smart language:—" The arch" bishop," says he, " having sent so many men to divers " prisons, as Bridewdl, Newgate, the two Compters, the " White-lion, and the Fleet, now posted these things to the " civil magistrate. He bath destined brother Greenwood " and myself to death, and others to close prison; their' u poor wives and children to be cast out of the city, and " their goods to be confiscated. Is not this," says he, u a " christian bishop ? Arc these the virtues of him, who takes " upon himself the care and government of the churches " in the land, to tear and devour God's poor sheep, to rend " off their flesh and break their bones, and chop them in " pieces as flesh for the cauldron ? Will he thus instruct u and convince gainsayers ? Surely he will persuade but u few, who fear God, to his religion, by this evil dealing. " Does he consult his own credit, or the honour of his w prince, by this tyrannical havock ? For our parts, our " lives are not dear unto us, so that we may finish our " testimony with joy. We are always ready, through the K grace of God, to be offered up upon the testimony of the " faith that we have made."* When, therefore, their whole case is impartially considered, we think there was not much cause for Mr. Strype to call these passionate and angry expressions. These unhappy men undoubtedly fell a sacrifice to the resentment of an angry prelate; who is, nevertheless, denominated " a very worthy man."t

In the mean time, while we condemn the severity with which these men were treated, we do not mean to palliate their errors. Their rigid and narrow sentiments concerning discipline; their denying the church of England to be a true church; their maintaining that her government was so wholly popish and antichristian as to render all her ordinances and sacraments invalid; and their not only renouncing communion with her, but with all other reformed churches, excepting such as were according to their own model, are sufficient proofs how strongly they were tinged with bigotry. The true grounds of religious freedom were, at this period, so little understood, that it is exceedingly probable, that, if the Brownists had risen in power, they would have exercised it in a very unjustifiable manner. The condemnation and execution of Mr. Barrow and Greenwood, were acts of flagrant injustice and cruelty, and will stand as monuments of disgrace to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, as durable as time.*

Upon this part of our English history, the judicious Rapin observes, « That the queen hearkened to the suggestions of the clergy, who represented the puritans as seditious persons; who rebelled against the laws, and, by their disobedience, shook the foundations of the government. This is not the only time, nor is England the only state, where disobedience in point of religion, has been confounded with rebellion against the sovereign. There is scarcely, a christian state, where the prevailing sect will suffer the least division, or the least swerving from the established opinions; no, not even in private. Shall I venture to say, it is the clergy chiefly who support this strange principle of non-toleration, so little agreeable to christian charity ? The severity of which, from this time, began to he exercised upon the nonconformists in England, produced terrible effects in the following reigns, and occasioned troubles and factions which remain to this day."t

Mr. Greenwood published " A Briefe Refutation of Mr. George Gifford;" nnd " An Answer to George Gilford's pretended Defence of Read-Prayers and Devised Liturgies;" in the titles of which, he calk himself " Christ's poor afflicted Prisoner in the Fleet, for the Truth of the Gospel."