Romans 1:30

Paul changes the construction again to twelve substantives and adjectives that give vivid touches to this composite photograph of the God abandoned soul. Whisperers (psiqurista). Old word from psiqurizw, to speak into the ear, to speak secretly, an onomatopoetic word like psiqurismo ( 2 Corinthians 12:20 ) and only here in N.T. Backbiters (katalalou). Found nowhere else except in Hermas, compound like katalalew, to talk back ( James 4:11 ), and katalalia, talking back ( 2 Corinthians 12:20 ), talkers back whether secretly or openly. Hateful to God (qeostugei). Old word from qeo and stugew. All the ancient examples take it in the passive sense and so probably here. So stughto ( Titus 3:13 ). Vulgate has deo odibiles. Insolent (ubrista). Old word for agent from ubrizw, to give insult to, here alone in N.T. save 1 Timothy 1:13 . Haughty (uperhpanou). From uper and painomai, to appear above others, arrogant in thought and conduct, "stuck up." Boastful (alazona). From alh, wandering. Empty pretenders, swaggerers, braggarts. Inventors of evil things (epeureta kakwn). Inventors of new forms of vice as Nero was. Tacitus (Ann. IV. ii) describes Sejanus as facinorum omnium repertor and Virgil (Aen. ii. 163) scelerum inventor. Disobedient to parents (goneusin apeiqei). Cf. 1 Timothy 1:9 ; 2 Timothy 3:2 . An ancient and a modern trait.

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