Romans 1:29

Being called with (peplhrwmenou). Perfect passive participle of the common verb plhrow, state of completion, "filled to the brim with" four vices in the associative instrumental case (adikiai, unrighteousness as in verse 2 Corinthians 18 , ponhriai, active wickedness as in Mark 7:22 , pleonexiai, covetousness as in 1 Thessalonians 2:5 ; Luke 12:15 , kakiai, maliciousness or inward viciousness of disposition as in 1 Corinthians 5:8 ). Note asyndeton, no connective in the lists in verses Romans 1:29-31 . Dramatic effect. The order of these words varies in the MSS. and porneiai, fornication, is not genuine here (absent in Aleph A B C). Full of (mestou). Paul changes from participle to adjective. Old adjective, rare in the N.T., like mestow, to fill full (only in Acts 2:13 in N.T.), stuffed full of (with genitive). Five substantives in the genitive (pqonou, envy, as in Galatians 5:21 , ponou, murder, and so a paronomasia or combination with pqonou, of like sounding words, erido, strife, as in 2 Corinthians 12:16 , kakohqia, malignity, and here only in N.T. though old word from kakohqh and that from kako and hqo, a tendency to put a bad construction on things, depravity of heart and malicious disposition.