22:1 Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover1
JESUS PREDICTS, THE RULERS PLOT FOR AND JUDAS BARGAINS FOR HIS DEATH. (Mount of Olives, Bethany, and Jerusalem. Tuesday after sunset, which Jews regarded as the beginning of Wednesday.) Matthew 26:1-5 Matthew 26:14-16 ; Mark 14:1 Mark 14:2 Mark 14:10 Mark 14:11 ; Luke 22:1-6
- Now the feast of unleavened bread drew nigh, which is called the Passover. See Mark 14:1.
22:2 And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death; for they feared the people1.
- And the chief priests and the scribes sought how they might put him to death; for they feared the people. See Mark 14:2.
22:3 And Satan entered into Judas who was called Iscariot1, being of the number of the twelve.
- Judas who was called Iscariot. See Mark 3:19 and see John 6:71.
22:4 And he went away, and communed with the chief priests and captains1, how he might deliver him unto them.
- And he went away, and communed with the chief priests and captains,
- how he might deliver him unto them. See Mark 14:10.
22:5 And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money1.
- And they were glad, and covenanted to give him money. See Mark 14:11.
22:6 And he consented, and sought opportunity to deliver him unto them in the absence of the multitude1.
- And he consented, and sought opportunity to deliver him unto them in the absence of the multitude. See Mark 14:11.
22:7 And the day of unleavened bread came1, on which the passover must be sacrificed.
PREPARATION FOR PASSOVER. DISCIPLES CONTEND FOR PRECEDENCE. (Bethany to Jerusalem. Thursday afternoon and, after sunset, beginning of Friday.) Matthew 26:17-20 ; Mark 14:12-17 ; Luke 22:7-18 Luke 22:24-30
- And the day of unleavened bread came. See Mark 14:12.
22:9 And they said unto him, Where wilt thou that we make ready1?
- Where wilt thou that we make ready? See Mark 14:12.
22:10 And he said unto them1, Behold, when ye are entered into the city, there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of water; follow him into the house whereinto he goeth.
- And he said unto them. See Mark 14:13.
22:11 And ye shall say unto the master of the house1, The Teacher saith unto thee, Where is the guestchamber, where I shall eat the passover with my disciples?
- And ye shall say unto the master of the house, etc. See Mark 14:14.
22:14 And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the apostles with him1.
- And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the apostles with him. See Mark 14:17.
22:15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer1:
- With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer. Jesus had desired to keep with his disciples this last typewhich stood so close to the thing typified. It was a feastcommemorating a great deliverance from death through the sacrifice of alamb, and the real sacrifice and deliverance of which it was typicalwere about to be fulfilled in the unfolding of the kingdom of God.
22:17 And he received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves1:
- And he received a cup, and when he had given thanks, he said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves. Luke brings out theparallelism between the passover and the Lord's supper. Each consistedin eating followed by drinking, and the closeness of the parallel isemphasized by the use of almost the same words with regard to the cup( Luke 22:16 Luke 22:18 ). The passover was typical of the Lord's suffering"before" the event, and the Lord's supper is typical of the same thing"after" the event.
22:19 And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he brake it1, and gave to them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.
THE LORD'S SUPPER INSTITUTED. (Jerusalem. Evening before the crucifixion.) Matthew 26:26-29 ; Mark 14:22-25 ; Luke 22:19 Luke 22:20 ; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26
- And he took bread, and when he had given thanks, he brake it, etc. See Mark 14:22.
22:20 And the cup in like manner after supper1, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood, [even] that which is poured out for you2.
- And the cup in like manner after supper. Luke distinguishes between the cup taken during Luke 22:17 , and taken after supper. The firstbelonged to the passover, this to the Lord's Supper.See Mark 14:23.
- Saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood, [even] that which is poured out for you. See Mark 14:24.
22:21 But behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table1.
JUDAS' BETRAYAL AND PETER'S DENIAL FORETOLD. (Jerusalem. Evening before the crucifixion.) Matthew 26:21-25 Matthew 26:31-35 ; Mark 14:18-21 Mark 14:27-31 ; Luke 22:21-23 Luke 22:31-38 John 13:21-38
- But behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table. See Mark 14:18.
22:22 For the Son of man indeed goeth, as it hath been determined: but woe unto that man through whom he is betrayed1!
- For the Son of man indeed goeth, as it hath been determined: but woe unto that man through whom he is betrayed! See Mark 14:21.
22:23 And they began to question among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing1.
- And they began to question among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing. See Mark 14:19.
22:24 And there arose also a contention among them, which of them was accounted to be greatest1.
- And there arose also a contention among them, which of them was accounted to be greatest. In sending to secure the room in whichthe paschal supper was being eaten, Jesus had said, "My time is athand". Such expressions were falsely construed by the apostles. Theythought that Jesus was about to set up his kingdom, and began at onceto contend for the chief places. Jesus rebukes this false ambition inmuch the same manner as he had previously. See Mark 9:33 andsee Mark 10:41.
22:25 And he said unto them, The kings of the Gentiles have lordship over them1; and they that have authority over them are called Benefactors.
- The kings of the Gentiles have lordship over them. See Mark 10:42.
22:26 But ye [shall] not [be] so1: but he that is the greater among you, let him become as the younger; and he that is chief, as he that doth serve.
- But ye [shall] not [be] so, etc. See Mark 10:43.
22:28 But ye are they that have continued with me in my temptations1;
- But ye are they that have continued with me in my temptations. The word "temptations" is here used to mean "trials" ( James 1:2 James 1:3 ).
22:30 that ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom1; and ye shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel2.
- That ye may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom. The words concerning eating and drinking at the Lord's table refer to the ancientcustom of thus bestowing honor and distinction ( 2 Samuel 9:7 ; 2 Samuel 19:28 ), andindicate that the apostles, being about to participate in the Lord'scondemnation and suffering, should in the end share his exaltation andits attendant joys.
- And ye shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel. See Matthew 19:28.
22:31 Simon, Simon1, behold, Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat2:
- Simon, Simon. By thus repeating the name, Jesus tempered the rebuke. See also Luke 10:41 ; Acts 9:4 .
- Behold, Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat. The language here suggests a repetition, in some degree, of Satan'sconduct in the case of Job. See Job 1:1-2:10 .
22:32 but I made supplication for thee, that thy faith fail not1; and do thou, when once thou hast turned again, establish thy brethren2.
- But I made supplication for thee, that thy faith fail not. Jesus, having insight into what was going on in the spirit world, madesupplication that Peter might be enabled to endure the trial.
- And do thou, when once thou hast turned again, establish thy brethren. The language sadly intimates that Satan's test would leavehim in need of repentance. As the one who perhaps exercised thestrongest influence over the other ten apostles, Peter is exhorted touse his own bitter experience for their benefit and strengthening.
22:33 And he said unto him, Lord, with thee I am ready to go both to prison and to death1.
- Lord, with thee I am ready to go both to prison and to death. See Mark 14:29.
22:34 And he said, I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me1.
- I tell thee, Peter, the cock shall not crow this day, until thou shalt thrice deny that thou knowest me. See Mark 14:30.
22:35 And he said unto them, When I sent you forth without purse, and wallet, and shoes, lacked ye anything? And they said, Nothing.
- When I sent you forth without purse, and wallet, and shoes, lacked ye anything? And they said, Nothing. See Mark 6:8 . In this passageour Lord draws a contrast between the favor with which his messengershad been received on their "former" mission and the trials andpersecutions which awaited them in their "future" course. If they hadprepared then to be received with joy, they were to prepare now to beopposed with bitterness; for the utter rejection of the Master would befollowed by the violent persecution of the servants.
22:37 For I say unto you, that this which is written must be fulfilled in me, And he was reckoned with transgressors1: for that which concerneth me hath fulfilment.
- And he was reckoned with transgressors. See Isaiah 53:12 .
22:38 And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords1. And he said unto them, It is enough2.
- And they said, Lord, behold, here are two swords. The apostles took the words of Jesus literally, and showed two swords, and the Lord, fortheir future enlightenment, said,
- It is enough. Thus intimating that he did not mean a literal arming with carnal weapons, for had he done so, two swords would not havesufficed for twelve men.
22:39 And he came out, and went, as his custom was, unto the mount of Olives; and the disciples also followed him.
GOING TO GETHSEMANE, AND AGONY THEREIN. (A garden between the brook Kidron and the Mount of Olives. Late Thursday night.) Matthew 26:30 Matthew 26:36-46 ; Mark 14:26 Mark 14:32-42 ; Luke 22:39-46 ; John 18:1
22:40 And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation1.
- Pray that ye enter not into temptation. See Mark 14:32.
22:41 And he was parted from them about a stone's cast1; and he kneeled down and prayed2,
- About a stone's cast. About a hundred fifty to two hundred feet.
- And he kneeled down and prayed. Compare Mark 14:35 .
22:42 saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done1.
- Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done. See Mark 14:36.
22:44 And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became as it were great drops of blood falling down upon the ground1.
- And his sweat became as it were great drops of blood falling down upon the ground. Commentators give instances of bloody sweat underabnormal pathological conditions.
22:46 and said unto them, Why sleep ye? rise and pray, that ye enter not into temptation.
- Why sleep ye? rise and pray, that ye enter not into temptation. The admonition which had at first been addressed to all the eleven( Luke 22:40 ) is now spoken to the chosen there.
22:47 While he yet spake, behold, a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them1; and he drew near unto Jesus to kiss him2.
JESUS BETRAYED, ARRESTED, AND FORSAKEN. (Gethsemane. Friday, several hours before dawn.) Matthew 26:47-56 ; Mark 14:43-52 ; Luke 22:47-53 ; John 18:2-11
- Behold, a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them. See Mark 14:43.
- And he drew near unto Jesus to kiss him. See Mark 14:44.
22:48 But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss1?
- But Jesus said unto him, Judas, betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss? When Judas approaches to carry out his contract, the Lord'squestion exposes him before all as a betrayer, and not a disciple as hewished to appear to be (for kissing was the common mode of salutationbetween men, especially between teacher and pupils), and when Judasbrazenly persists in completing the sign, Jesus bids him do it, not asa friend, but as a traitor. Little did the betrayer think that the kissof Judas would become a proverb in every nation.
22:50 And a certain one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and struck off his right ear1.
- And a certain one of them smote the servant of the high priest, and struck off his right ear. See Mark 14:47.
22:51 But Jesus answered and said, Suffer ye [them] thus far1. And he touched his ear, and healed him.
- Suffer ye [them] thus far. Some think that Jesus spoke these words to those who held him, asking them to loose him sufficiently to enablehim to touch the ear of Malchus. But the Revision committee, byinserting "them" make Jesus address his disciples, commanding them notto interfere with those who were arresting him, making it a generalstatement of the idea which the Lord addressed specifically to Peter inthe next sentence ( Matthew 26:52 ).
22:52 And Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple1, and elders, that were come against him, Are ye come out, as against a robber, with swords and staves?
- And Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple,
- and elders, etc. See Mark 14:48 .
22:53 When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched not forth your hands against me1: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness.
- When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched not forth your hands against me. See Mark 14:49.
22:54 And they seized him, and led him [away], and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed afar off1.
SECOND STAGE OF JEWISH TRIAL. JESUS CONDEMNED BY CAIAPHAS AND THE SANHEDRIN. (Palace of Caiaphas. Friday.) Matthew 26:57 Matthew 26:59-68 ; Mark 14:53 Mark 14:55-65 ; Luke 22:54 Luke 22:63-65 ; John 18:24
- But Peter followed afar off. See Mark 14:54.
22:55 And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the court, and had sat down together, Peter sat in the midst of them1.
- Peter sat in the midst of them. See Mark 14:54.
22:62 And he went out, and wept bitterly1.
- And he went out, and wept bitterly. See Mark 14:72.
22:63 And the men that held [Jesus] mocked him, and beat him1.
- And the men that held [Jesus] mocked him, and beat him. See Mark 14:65.
22:66 And as soon as it was day, the assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together1, both chief priests and scribes; and they led him away into their council, saying,
THIRD STAGE OF JEWISH TRIAL. JESUS FORMALLY CONDEMNED BY THE SANHEDRIN AND LED TO PILATE. (Jerusalem. Friday after dawn.) Matthew 27:1 Matthew 27:2 ; Mark 15:1 ; Luke 22:66-23:1 ; John 18:28
- The assembly of the elders of the people was gathered together, etc. See Mark 15:1.
22:67 If thou art the Christ, tell us. But he said unto them, If I tell you, ye will not believe1:
- If I tell you, ye will not believe. As experience had already proven ( John 8:59 ; John 10:31 ).
22:68 and if I ask [you], ye will not answer1.
- And if I ask [you], ye will not answer. Thus Jesus protests against the violence and injustice of his trial. His judges were asking himwhether he was the Christ without any intention of investigating thetruth of his claim, but merely for the purpose of condemning him byunwarrantedly assuming that he was not the Christ. They therefore askedin an unlawful spirit as well as in an unlawful manner. Jesus had agood right to ask them questions tending to confirm his Christhood bythe Scripture, but had he done so they would not have answered( Matthew 22:41-45 ). Jesus appeals to them to try the question as to who hewas, but they insist on confining the inquiry as to who he claimed tobe, assuming that the claim was false.
22:69 But from henceforth shall the Son of man be seated at the right hand of the power of God1.
- But from henceforth shall the Son of man be seated at the right hand of the power of God. See Mark 14:62.
22:70 And they all said, Art thou then the Son of God? And he said unto them, Ye say that I am1.
- Ye say that I am. The Hebrew mode of expression, equivalent to "Ye say it, because I am".
22:71 And they said, What further need have we of witness1? for we ourselves have heard from his own mouth.
- What further need have we of witness? Thus they unconsciously admit their lack of evidence against Jesus.